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The inaugural data from the first systematic program of sea-ice observations in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, in 2018 coincided with the first winter in living memory when the Sound was not choked with ice. The following winter of 2018–19 was even warmer and characterized by even less ice. Here we discuss the mass balance of landfast ice near Kotzebue (Qikiqtaġruk) during these two anomalously warm winters. We use in situ observations and a 1-D thermodynamic model to address three research questions developed in partnership with an Indigenous Advisory Council. In doing so, we improve our understanding of connections between landfast ice mass balance, marine mammals and subsistence hunting. Specifically, we show: (i) ice growth stopped unusually early due to strong vertical ocean heat flux, which also likely contributed to early start to bearded seal hunting; (ii) unusually thin ice contributed to widespread surface flooding. The associated snow ice formation partly offset the reduced ice growth, but the flooding likely had a negative impact on ringed seal habitat; (iii) sea ice near Kotzebue during the winters of 2017–18 and 2018–19 was likely the thinnest since at least 1945, driven by a combination of warm air temperatures and a persistent ocean heat flux.
Regular breakfast skipping is related to unhealthy dietary behaviours, such as consuming an overall poorer quality diet and lower rates of physical activity, both of which are linked to a higher BMI. Adolescent breakfast skippers struggle with mental focus, sleep issues and lower grades. Solutions that can be implemented to overcome breakfast skipping are needed.
A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify programmes that aimed to increase breakfast eating. Following the PRISMA framework, studies were sourced to examine details of behaviour change, evidence of theory use and other important programme learnings and outcomes.
Breakfast consumption empirical studies published from 2000 onwards.
Nineteen empirical studies that aimed to improve breakfast eating behaviour.
Out of the nineteen studies examined, ten studies reported an increase in breakfast consumption frequency for the entire study group or subgroups. Seven studies found no change, one was inconclusive and one observed a decrease in breakfast frequency. Positive changes to the dietary quality of breakfast were observed in five of the studies that did not observe increased frequency of breakfast consumption. Only six studies reported using theory in the intervention.
This evidence review points needed to extend theory application to establish a reliable evidence base that can be followed by practitioners seeking to increase breakfast eating rates in their target population.
To explore recent mothers’ views of the health visiting antenatal contact in England.
English health visitors are mandated to be in contact with all women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this antenatal contact is to assess the needs of the family before the birth and support preparation for parenthood. Recent data show that this contact is provided fragmentarily and not always face-to-face. More information on how women view this contact could inform service provision.
Twenty-nine mothers with a baby less than 1 year old were recruited via social media and word of mouth. Having had antenatal contact with a health visitor was not a requirement to participate in the study. Women took part in face-to-face or phone interviews and all recordings were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using systematic thematic analysis.
Eleven women had contact with a health visitor during pregnancy: nine through a home visit, one via a letter and one via a phone call. The remaining 18 women were asked about what they would have wanted from an antenatal contact. Three themes were identified: relationship building, information provision, and mode and time of contact. Some participants who had experienced a home visit reported building rapport with their health visitor before the postnatal period, but not everyone had this experience. Women reported requesting and receiving information about the health visiting service and the role of the health visitor. Finally, women suggested different modes of contact, suggesting a letter or that the information about health visiting could be provided by a midwife. A few women preferred a home visit. These study findings show women were unclear regarding the aim of the health visitor antenatal contact. As such, the contact is unlikely to reach its full potential in supporting parents-to-be.
To determine whether patients using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website (http://medicare.gov/hospitalcompare) can use nationally reported healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data to differentiate hospitals.
Secondary analysis of publicly available HAI data for calendar year 2013.
We assessed the availability of HAI data for geographically proximate hospitals (ie, hospitals within the same referral region) and then analyzed these data to determine whether they are useful to differentiate hospitals. We assessed data for the 6 HAIs reported by hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Data were analyzed for 4,561 hospitals representing 88% of registered community and federal government hospitals in the United States. Healthcare-associated infection data are only useful for comparing hospitals if they are available for multiple hospitals within a geographic region. We found that data availability differed by HAI. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) data were most available, with 82% of geographic regions (ie, hospital referral regions) having >50% of hospitals reporting them. In contrast, 4% of geographic regions had >50% of member hospitals reporting surgical site infections (SSI) for hysterectomies, which had the lowest availability. The ability of HAI data to differentiate hospitals differed by HAI: 72% of hospital referral regions had at least 1 pair of hospitals with statistically different risk-adjusted CDI rates (SIRs), compared to 9% for SSI (hysterectomy).
HAI data generally are reported by enough hospitals to meet minimal criteria for useful comparisons in many geographic locations, though this varies by type of HAI. CDI and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) are more likely to differentiate hospitals than the other publicly reported HAIs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Upper-extremity (UE) impairment affects 88% of stroke survivors due to dysfunctional shoulder-hand coordination. Patients may be able to grasp with the arm at rest, but unable to grasp in a functional context (eg, from a high shelf) because shoulder use elicits involuntary hand muscle activity. Further, much rehabilitation research is directed at unsuccessful stroke recovery (patients with persistent UE impairment) but very little towards patients who show successful clinical recovery (such as those with mild UE impairment) even though these patients have attained the desired rehabilitation outcome. We examined the neurophysiological trajectory of successful compared to unsuccessful post-stroke recovery in the context of functional UE movements to clearly identify what factors are necessary for successful recovery of functional UE movements after stroke. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We studied 3 populations: (1) mildly-impaired patients, early (at <17 d, 30 d, 90 d, and 180 d) after stroke as a model of successful post-stroke recovery, (2) moderately-impaired, chronic patients (>6-months post stroke) with persistent hand function impairment, as a model of incomplete post-stroke recovery (unsuccessful recovery), and (3) Healthy age-range matched controls. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in all 3 groups at the given time points to measure corticomotor excitability (motor evoked potentials, recruitment curve), corticomotor inhibition (short-interval intracortical inhibition, long-interval intracortical inhibition), and intracortical facilitation of hand muscles with the shoulder positioned in different degrees of flexion or abduction (these shoulder positions are known to elicit involuntary, undesired hand muscle activation, which leads to UE dysfunction and impairment in individuals with stroke). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Data collection are in process and will be presented. Preliminary data from controls shows that corticomotor excitability of selected hand muscles is affected by changes in shoulder position. Preliminary findings in controls are consistent with clinical findings in stroke that certain shoulder positions elicit involuntary and undesired hand muscle activation, leading to UE dysfunction and disability. Findings from the stroke groups will be presented. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We hypothesize that this centrally-facilitated coupling between shoulder and hand muscles is disrupted after stroke, which may play a central role in the inability of patients to perform functional UE movements. By comparing the TMS metrics in mildly-impaired Versus moderately-impaired chronic patients, we will be able to identify the longitudinal change in neurophysiology underlying shoulder-hand coordination that is associated with successful or unsuccessful clinical recovery of UE function after stroke. Thus, these findings will help us distinguish between the neurophysiology underlying successful from unsuccessful UE recovery leading to more mechanism-based interventions for UE dysfunction post stroke in the future.
Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in temperature and accumulation-rate boundary conditions; all of the boundary conditions were chosen to simulate firn densification in cold, dry environments. While the intended application of the participating models varies, they are describing the same physical system and should in principle yield the same solutions. The firn models all produce plausible depth-density profiles, but the model outputs in both steady state and transient modes differ for quantities that are of interest in ice core and altimetry research. These differences demonstrate that firn-densification models are incorrectly or incompletely representing physical processes. We quantitatively characterize the differences among the results from the various models. For example, we find depth-integrated porosity is unlikely to be inferred with confidence from a firn model to better than 2 m in steady state at a specific site with known accumulation rate and temperature. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment can provide a benchmark of results for future models, provide a basis to quantify model uncertainties and guide future directions of firn-densification modeling.
This article examines how the American conception of female beauty introduced new and distinct understandings of beauty and femininity to postwar Italy. In analysing beauty product advertisements from one of the most popular women’s magazines of the period, Annabella, the article articulates the components of the American beauty ideal and illustrates how these notions broke with previous Italian ideas of beauty. Moreover, the article also examines how this new ideal promoted democratic consumer capitalist values – freedom of choice, individualism, and affluence – which had an important political and cultural significance in Italy’s Cold War struggle. In light of this struggle and the country’s postwar redevelopment, the American beauty ideal sought to influence the women who read Annabella and the way in which they fashioned and identified themselves – as the Italian ‘Mrs Consumer.’
Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) data are reported to the public on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website. We previously found that public understanding of these data is poor. Our objective was to develop an improved method for presenting HAI data that could be used on the CMS website.
Randomized controlled trial comparing understanding of data presented using the current CMS presentation strategy versus a new strategy.
A 760-bed tertiary referral hospital.
A total of 61 patients were randomly selected within 24 hours of admission.
Participants were shown HAI data as presented on the CMS Hospital Compare website (control arm) or data formatted using a new method (experimental arm).
No statistically significant demographic differences were identified between study arms. Although 47% percent of participants said a website for comparing hospitals would have been helpful, only 10% had ever used such a website. Participants viewing data using the new presentation strategy compared hospitals correctly 56% of the time, compared with 32% in the control arm (P=.0002).
Understanding of HAI data increased significantly with the new data presentation method compared to the method currently used on the CMS Hospital Compare website. Many participants expressed interest in a website for comparing hospitals. Improved methods for presenting CMS HAI data, such as the one assessed here, should be adopted to increase public understanding.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
This study aimed to specify the neural mechanisms underlying the link between low household income and diminished executive control in the preschool period. Specifically, we examined whether individual differences in the neural processes associated with executive attention and inhibitory control accounted for income differences observed in performance on a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks. The study utilized a sample of preschool-aged children (N = 118) whose families represented the full range of income, with 32% of families at/near poverty, 32% lower income, and 36% middle to upper income. Children completed a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks and then completed two computerized executive control tasks while EEG data were collected. We predicted that differences in the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of executive attention and inhibitory control would account for income differences observed on the executive control battery. Income and ERP measures were related to performance on the executive control battery. However, income was unrelated to ERP measures. The findings suggest that income differences observed in executive control during the preschool period might relate to processes other than executive attention and inhibitory control.
Public reporting of hospital quality data is a key element of US healthcare reform. Data for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are especially complex.
To assess interpretability of HAI data as presented on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website among patients who might benefit from access to these data.
We randomly selected inpatients at a large tertiary referral hospital from June to September 2014. Participants performed 4 distinct tasks comparing hypothetical HAI data for 2 hospitals, and the accuracy of their comparisons was assessed. Data were presented using the same tabular formats used by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Demographic characteristics and healthcare experience data were also collected.
Participants (N=110) correctly identified the better of 2 hospitals when given written descriptions of the HAI measure in 72% of the responses (95% CI, 66%–79%). Adding the underlying numerical data (number of infections, patient-time, and standardized infection ratio) to the written descriptions reduced correct responses to 60% (55%–66%). When the written HAI measure description was not informative (identical for both hospitals), 50% answered correctly (42%–58%). When no written HAI measure description was provided and hospitals differed by denominator for infection rate, 38% answered correctly (31%–45%).
Current public HAI data presentation methods may be inadequate. When presented with numeric HAI data, study participants incorrectly compared hospitals on the basis of HAI data in more than 40% of the responses. Research is needed to identify better ways to convey these data to the public.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):182–187
The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled ‘Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies’. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation–health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation–health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims.
To gather opinion from trainees across England about their current experiences and future career plans. This was done via an internet-based survey.
Out of the 359 responses we received, 65.8% of trainees planned to stay in psychiatry until retirement. Trainees felt several issues were problematic, including the attitude of other specialties towards psychiatry, perceived substandard treatment of psychiatric patients by other specialties and implications of New Ways of Working.
Despite there being many areas of training respondents were happy with, if attrition is to be minimised, issues such as how psychiatric trainees integrate with the other medical specialties and how the role of doctors in the specialty is perceived need to be addressed.
TO evaluate whether a hybrid electronic screening algorithm using a total joint replacement (TJR) registry, electronic surgical site infection (SSI) screening, and electronic health record (EHR) review of SSI is sensitive and specific for SSI detection and reduces chart review volume for SSI surveillance.
A large health maintenance organization (HMO) with 8.6 million members.
Using codes for infection, wound complications, cellullitis, procedures related to infections, and surgeon-reported complications from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, we screened each TJR procedure performed in our HMO between January 2006 and December 2008 for possible infections. Flagged charts were reviewed by clinical-content experts to confirm SSIs. SSIs identified by the electronic screening algorithm were compared with SSIs identified by the traditional indirect surveillance methodology currently employed in our HMO. Positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and specificity and sensitivity values were calculated. Absolute reduction of chart review volume was evaluated.
The algorithm identified 4,001 possible SSIs (9.5%) for the 42,173 procedures performed for our TJR patient population. A total of 440 case patients (1.04%) had SSIs (PPV, 11.0%; NPV, 100.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of the overall algorithm were 97.8% and 91.5%, respectively.
An electronic screening algorithm combined with an electronic health record review of flagged cases can be used as a valid source for TJR SSI surveillance. The algorithm successfully reduced the volume of chart review for surveillance by 90.5%.
In order to achieve the near-ferroelectric order desired in organic electro-optic (EO) chromophore systems, a pseudo-discotic chromophore is under investigation. Calculations suggest head-to-tail inter-chromophore dipole-dipole interactions should drive chromophores with an appropriate aspect ratio into ferroelectric columns similar to those seen in discotic liquid crystals (DLCs). Therefore, the liquid crystalline properties of these chromophores are being examined by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the effect of this discotic behavior on the order and EO properties of the system are being examined both dynamically by second harmonic generation (SHG) and statically by attenuated total reflection (ATR). Additionally, these chromophores are being incorporated into waveguide-based photonic devices.