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The Maldives Heritage Survey was established to document cultural heritage vulnerable to human and environmental threats in the Maldives. An open-access online database is being produced to inform academic studies, support heritage-management plans and create a permanent archive of digital heritage resources.
The Promontory caves (Utah) and Franktown Cave (Colorado) contain high-fidelity records of short-term occupations by groups with material culture connections to the Subarctic/Northern Plains. This research uses Promontory and Franktown bison dung, hair, hide, and bone collagen to establish local baseline carbon isotopic variability and identify leather from a distant source. The ankle wrap of one Promontory Cave 1 moccasin had a δ13C value that indicates a substantial C4 component to the animal's diet, unlike the C3 diets inferred from 171 other Promontory and northern Utah bison samples. We draw on a unique combination of multitissue isotopic analysis, carbon isoscapes, ancient DNA (species and sex identification), tissue turnover rates, archaeological contexts, and bison ecology to show that the high δ13C value was not likely a result of local plant consumption, bison mobility, or trade. Instead, the bison hide was likely acquired via long-distance travel to/from an area of abundant C4 grasses far to the south or east. Expansive landscape knowledge gained through long-distance associations would have allowed Promontory caves inhabitants to make well-informed decisions about directions and routes of movement for a territorial shift, which seems to have occurred in the late thirteenth century.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Environmental factors may significantly increase the risk of or buffer against Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, yet strategies to address cognitive decline and impairment to date largely overlook the role of neighborhoods. This mixed-methods study is the first to examine potential links between access to eateries and cognitive function. The goal is to inform place-specific interventions to help aging individuals reduce risk for cognitive impairment through neighborhood community and design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, seated and mobile interviews with 125 adults aged 55-92 (mean age 71) living in the Minneapolis (Minnesota) metropolitan area suggest that eateries, including coffee shops and fast-food restaurants, represent popular neighborhood destinations for older adults and sources of wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that these sites, and the benefits they confer, are associated with cognitive welfare, we analyzed data from urban and suburban dwelling participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national racially diverse sample of older Americans followed since 2003 (n = 16,404, average age at assessment 72 years). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative thematic analysis of how older adults perceived and utilized local eateries include sites of familiarity and comfort; physical and economic accessibility; sociability with friends, family, staff, and customers; and entertainment (e.g., destinations for outings and walks, free newspapers to read). Quantitative results from multilevel linear regression models demonstrate a positive association between density of eateries and cognitive functioning. Taken together, these results complicate our understanding of fast-food settings as possible sites of wellbeing through social interaction and leisure activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results contribute new evidence towards an emerging ecological model of cognitive health. Understanding whether and how retail food environments can help buffer against cognitive decline among older adults provides novel opportunities to promote wellbeing in later life through community interventions and neighborhood design.
This chapter examines the commentary tradition of a one-line fragment of Ennius’ Annals, qui vicit non est victor nisi victum fatetur (513 Skutsch). Although modern commentators have adduced a broad range of comparanda, their selection of historical parallels reflects preconceived notions of what the line must mean. By returning to the line’s original context in a late-antique scholium on the Aeneid, we are better able to appreciate the line as an epic fragment. Parallels drawn from Ennius and other poets allow for a different reading of the fragment, and suggest alternative methodologies for the use of fragments in historical arguments.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
The cognitive process of worry, which keeps negative thoughts in mind and elaborates the content, contributes to the occurrence of many mental health disorders. Our principal aim was to develop a straightforward measure of general problematic worry suitable for research and clinical treatment. Our secondary aim was to develop a measure of problematic worry specifically concerning paranoid fears.
An item pool concerning worry in the past month was evaluated in 250 non-clinical individuals and 50 patients with psychosis in a worry treatment trial. Exploratory factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) informed the selection of scale items. IRT analyses were repeated with the scales administered to 273 non-clinical individuals, 79 patients with psychosis and 93 patients with social anxiety disorder. Other clinical measures were administered to assess concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with 75 participants. Sensitivity to change was assessed with 43 patients with psychosis.
A 10-item general worry scale (Dunn Worry Questionnaire; DWQ) and a five-item paranoia worry scale (Paranoia Worries Questionnaire; PWQ) were developed. All items were highly discriminative (DWQ a = 1.98–5.03; PWQ a = 4.10–10.7), indicating small increases in latent worry lead to a high probability of item endorsement. The DWQ was highly informative across a wide range of the worry distribution, whilst the PWQ had greatest precision at clinical levels of paranoia worry. The scales demonstrated excellent internal reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to change.
The new measures of general problematic worry and worry about paranoid fears have excellent psychometric properties.
Reducing the delay of backend interconnects is critical in delivering improved performance in next generation computer chips. One option is to implement interlayer dielectric (ILD) materials with increasingly lower dielectric constant (k) values. Despite industry need, there has been a recent decrease in study and production of these materials in academia and business communities. We have generated a backbone and porogen system that allows us to control porosity from 0 to 60% volume, achieve k-values from 3.4 to 1.6, maintain high chemical stability to various wet cleans, and deliver uniquely high mechanical strength at a given porosity. Finite element modeling and experimental results demonstrate that further improvements can be achieved through control of the pore volume into an ordered network. With hopes to spur more materials development, this paper discusses some molecular design and nanoscale hierarchical principles relevant to making next generation low-k ILD materials.
To describe the implementation of a population-based surveillance system for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB).
Population-based active surveillance by the Georgia Emerging Infections Program.
Metropolitan Atlanta, starting November 2010.
Residents with MDR-GNB isolated from urine or a normally sterile site culture.
Surveillance was implemented in 3 phases: (1) surveying laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing practices, (2) piloting surveillance to estimate the proportion of GNB that were MDR, and (3) maintaining ongoing active surveillance for carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii using the 2010 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Pilot surveillance required developing and installing queries for GNB on the 3 types of automated testing instruments (ATIs), such as MicroScan, in Atlanta's clinical laboratories. Ongoing surveillance included establishing a process to extract data from ATIs consistently, review charts, manage data, and provide feedback to laboratories.
Output from laboratory information systems typically used for surveillance would not reliably capture the CLSI breakpoints, but queries developed for the 3 ATIs did. In November 2010, 0.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 35.7% of A. baumannii isolates from 21 laboratories were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Over a 5-month period, 82 Enterobacteriaceae and 59 A. baumannii were identified as carbapenem nonsusceptible.
Directly querying ATIs, a novel method of active surveillance for MDR-GNB, proved to be a reliable, sustainable, and accurate method that required moderate initial investment and modest maintenance. Ongoing surveillance is critical to assess the burden of and changes in MDR-GNB to inform prevention efforts.