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We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
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How do we limit global warming to 1.5 °C and why is it crucial? See highlights of latest climate science.
Music uses the evolutionarily unique temporal sensitivity of the auditory system and its tight coupling to the motor system to create a common neurophysiological clock between individuals that facilitates action coordination. We propose that this shared common clock arises from entrainment to musical rhythms, the process by which partners' brains and bodies become temporally aligned to the same rhythmic pulse.
Pain control is an important element of care for patients after surgery, leading to better outcomes, quicker transitions to recovery, and improvement in quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in children after cardiac surgery
Materials and Methods:
Patients between the ages of 1 month and 18 years of age, who received intravenous or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammataory drugs after cardiac surgery, from November 2015 until September 2017 were included in this study. The primary endpoints were non-steroidal anti-inflammataory drug-associated renal dysfunction and post-operative bleeding. Secondary endpoints examined the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammataory drug use on total daily dose of narcotics, number of intravenous PRN narcotic doses received, and pain assessment score. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics for frequencies and ranges. Multivariate analysis was performed to measure the association of all predictors and outcomes. Wilcoxon singed-rank test was performed for secondary outcomes.
There was no association between the incidence of renal dysfunction and the use of or duration of non-steroidal anti-inflammataory drugs; in addition no association was found with increased chest tube output. There was a statistically significant reduction of patients’ median Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scores (2–0; p = 0.003), seen within first 24 hours after initiation of ketorolac, and a significant reduction of morphine requirements seen from day 1 to day 2 (0.3 mg/kg versus 0.1 mg/kg; p < 0.001) and number of as-needed doses.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammataory drugs in paediatric cardiac surgery patients are safe and effective for post-operative pain management.
Guaiac stool testing has been routinely used as a method to detect gastrointestinal complications in infants with critical congenital heart disease (CHD); however, the sensitivity and specificity have not been established.
A retrospective chart review was performed investigating the presence of heme-positive stools and subsequent gastrointestinal complications as well as time to goal caloric intake and radiograph exposure.
The presence of heme-positive stools was not a statistically significant factor in patients with critical CHD that experienced gastrointestinal complications. Additionally, patients with heme-positive stools did undergo more abdominal X-rays than those with heme-negative stools.
The routine use of guaiac stool testing in infants with critical CHD is not a predictor of possible gastrointestinal complications and leads to more radiograph exposure for the patient. Close clinical monitoring can be used to evaluate feeding tolerance in infants with critical CHD.
The alkaline content of mixed transition metal phosphates Li(1−y)·zNay·zM0.5Fe0.5PO4 (M = Mn, Co; 0 ≤ y < 1; 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1) was determined by powder X-ray diffraction data by means of Rietveld analysis and multi-fraction models. The compounds LiM0.5Fe0.5PO4 were synthesized via solid-state reactions. Chemical extraction of Li with bromine in acetonitrile yielded well-crystalline Li0.5M0.5Fe0.5PO4. Subsequent reduction with Na2S in acetonitrile gave a product with a triphylite-type phase of the average composition Li0.5Na0.5M0.5Fe0.5PO4 showing a broad distribution of Li-to-Na-ratios. For Rietveld refinements a set of 11 fractions Li1−yNayM0.5Fe0.5PO4 was used to represent the triphylite-type phase and its composition fluctuation. To obtain samples with compositions close to NazM0.5Fe0.5PO4 (z = 0.5 or z = 1) up to two additional cycles of chemical oxidation and reduction were required. Because of a complex distribution of Li and Na within the triphylite-type phase a model of 121 fractions of Li(1−y)·zNay·zM0.5Fe0.5PO4 was developed to enable proper Rietveld refinements. The scaling factors of the 121 fractions were constrained by a bimodal bivariate normality. The evaluation of the pattern revealed a type of passivation, preventing the compound from complete oxidation or reduction of Fe for higher cycle numbers. Hence, no completely Li-free samples could be obtained.