Amorphous silicon single-junction p-i-n and Micromorph tandem solar cells are deposited in KAI-M reactors on in-house developed LPCVD ZnO front TCO's. An a-Si:H p-i-n cell with a stabilized efficiency of 10.09 % on 1 cm2 has been independently confirmed by NREL. An alternative ZnO/a-Si:H cell process with an intrinsic absorber of only 180 nm has reached 10.06 % NREL confirmed stabilized efficiencies as well. Up-scaling of such thin cells to 10x10 cm2 mini-modules has led to an aperture module efficiency of stabilized 9.20 ± 0.19 % as well independently confirmed by ESTI of JRC Ispra.
Micromorph tandem cells with stabilized efficiencies of 11.0% have been achieved on as-grown LPCVD ZnO front TCO at bottom cell thickness of just 1.3 μm in combination with the in-house developed AR concept. Applying an advanced LPCVD ZnO front TCO stabilized tandem cells of 10.6 % have been realized at a bottom cell thickness of only 0.8 μm. Implementing in-situ intermediate reflectors in Micromorph tandems on LPCVD ZnO reached in a stabilized cell efficiency of 11.3% with a bottom cell thickness of 1.6 μm.