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Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
Drawing on archival sources in Britain, Singapore, Malaysia, and the United States, this article explores late-colonial anxieties about the influence of Chinese nationalism in Malaya (and especially among students in Chinese-medium schools) in the lead up to self-government in 1957. It demonstrates that the colonial fear of communism in Malaya was not always synonymous with the fear of cultural influence from “new China” and that the “rise of China” in the mid-1950s was viewed as a challenge to colonially sanctioned programs for “Malayanization.” More importantly, in exploring some of the ways in which the colonial state mobilized anti-communist cultural workers from Hong Kong to help counter the perceived threat from China, the article argues that more focus should be placed on the role of colonial agency in shaping “Sinophone” cultural expression in Southeast Asia during this period.
THE SHANGHAI BUND – that celebrated stretch of waterfront in China's most populous of cities – looms large in the western imagination. As a site of nostalgic partings and arrivals, the subject of fiction and the backdrop to film (Hollywood and Hong Kong alike), it is the stuff of urban legend. In fictional and quasi-historical depictions of ‘old Shanghai’, the bund is everywhere, and is written as a romantic setting around which the intrigues of the treaty port world are woven. Likewise the literature of finance and business, in which Shanghai has been described as the specific location of a littoral Chinese identity grounded in market capitalism and entrepreneurialism. For such histories, the towering buildings of the Shanghai Bund and its flashing neon streetscapes have become the classic symbols of Chinese economic strength and vigour.
The Shanghai Bund is perhaps one of the world's most recognizable skylines. Hugging the banks of the Whampoa river, it is one of China's most photographed and written-about urban localities (see Figure 1). Yet the bund is more than just a streetscape – it is the single most important spatial reminder of an entire social system and lifestyle that came to East Asia in the wake of British success over China in the first Opium War, and the arrival of Admiral Perry's gunboats in Japanese waters shortly afterwards. The treaty port system meant far more than import/export statistics and diplomatic manoeuvres. Above all it meant a social system of exclusion and exploitation that was unique in the imperialist movement of the western powers during the mid- to late- nineteenth century, and into the early years of the twentieth century. This system brought with it specific concepts regarding space and power, and transferred such concepts onto the environments of Asia's riverine and coastal ports. The most distinctive of these was the bund – a spatial form that emerged not only in Shanghai, but in many other ports open to foreign trade throughout mainland China, Taiwan and Japan.
Predictably, most work on bunds in the Anglophone Academy has tended to focus exclusively on Shanghai, and little has been written outside the regional confines of ‘China Studies’.
Fertility is one of the most economically important traits in both beef and dairy cattle production; however, only female fertility is typically subjected to selection. Male and female fertility have only a small positive genetic correlation which is likely due to the existence of a relatively small number of genetic variants within each breed that cause embryonic and developmental losses. Genomic tools have been developed that allow the identification of lethal recessive loci based upon marker haplotypes. Selection against haplotypes harbouring lethal alleles in conjunction with selection to improve female fertility will result in an improvement in male fertility. Genomic selection has resulted in a two to fourfold increase in the rate of genetic improvement of most dairy traits in US Holstein cattle, including female fertility. Considering the rapidly increasing rate of adoption of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in both the US dairy and beef industries, genomic selection should be the most effective of all currently available approaches to improve male fertility. However, male fertility phenotypes are not routinely recorded in natural service mating systems and when artificial insemination is used, semen doses may be titrated to lower post-thaw progressively motile sperm numbers for high-merit and high-demand bulls. Standardization of sperm dosages across bull studs for semen distributed from young bulls would allow the capture of sire conception rate phenotypes for young bulls that could be used to generate predictions of genetic merit for male fertility in both males and females. These data would allow genomic selection to be implemented for male fertility in addition to female fertility within the US dairy industry. While the rate of use of artificial insemination is much lower within the US beef industry, the adoption of sexed semen in the dairy industry has allowed dairy herds to select cows from which heifer replacements are produced and cows that are used to produce terminal crossbred bull calves sired by beef breed bulls. Capture of sire conception rate phenotypes in dairy herds utilizing sexed semen will contribute data enabling genomic selection for male fertility in beef cattle breeds. As the commercial sector of the beef industry increasingly adopts fixed-time artificial insemination, sire conception rate phenotypes can be captured to facilitate the development of estimates of genetic merit for male fertility within US beef breeds.
Based on recently reopened files and publications in Nanjing, as well as published and newsreel accounts from the 1940s, this paper represents the first scholarly analysis of the rituals surrounding the death and burial of Wang Jingwei in Japanese-occupied China. Rather than locating this analysis purely in the literature on the history of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), however, this paper asks what Wang Jingwei's Re-organized National Government might tell us about personality cults in the political culture of modern China. While Wang's burial drew heavily on the precedent of Sun Yat-sen's funerals of the 1920s, it also presaged later spectacles of public mourning and posthumous commemoration, such as Chiang Kai-shek's funeral in 1975 in Taipei. In focusing on this one specific event in the life of a “puppet government,” this paper hopes to reignite scholarly interest in the study of “dead leaders” and their posthumous lives in modern Chinese history more generally.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
This paper explores the development of the Wang Jingwei personality cult during the Japanese occupation of China (1937–1945). It examines how the collaborationist Chinese state led by Wang sought to distinguish its figurehead from the person he had replaced, Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek. Drawing on visual, archival, and published sources, it traces the development of the Wang cult from the early years of the war, and argues that the unusual context in which the cult evolved ultimately undermined its coherence. The case of Wang Jingwei illustrates how the Chinese case more broadly can enhance our understandings of personality cults that develop under occupation. To this end, I compare the Wang regime with various European “collaborationist” governments that sought to promote their leaders in similar ways.
The Bovine Respiratory Disease Coordinated Agricultural Project (BRD CAP) is a 5-year project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with an overriding objective to use the tools of modern genomics to identify cattle that are less susceptible to BRD. To do this, two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using a case:control design on preweaned Holstein dairy heifers and beef feedlot cattle. A health scoring system was used to identify BRD cases and controls. Heritability estimates for BRD susceptibility ranged from 19 to 21% in dairy calves to 29.2% in beef cattle when using numerical scores as a semi-quantitative definition of BRD. A GWAS analysis conducted on the dairy calf data showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects explained 20% of the variation in BRD incidence and 17–20% of the variation in clinical signs. These results represent a preliminary analysis of ongoing work to identify loci associated with BRD. Future work includes validation of the chromosomal regions and SNPs that have been identified as important for BRD susceptibility, fine mapping of chromosomes to identify causal SNPs, and integration of predictive markers for BRD susceptibility into genetic tests and national cattle genetic evaluations.
There has been a hesitancy in academic discussion of Roman Britain to address the potential significance of the identity and agency of rural communities in shaping the provincial landscape. This article seeks to address the reasons for this before delineating some avenues by which we might better investigate this issue. Through two case studies the importance of kinship, agricultural peers and occupational identity (being farmers) are recognised as potential drivers for the course of rural life in Roman Britain. In so doing the extent to which ‘being Roman’ was really a central concern of many agricultural communities is questioned.
This paper explores the nature of film exhibition amongst the Chinese community in Manila during the Japanese Occupation of that city. Based on advertisements and film listings published in the Chinese-language press of the day (as well as on pre-war records concerning commercial Chinese entertainment in the Philippines), it explores the continuities in film exhibition practice undertaken by various theatre operators within the Binondo area of Manila both before, during, and after the war. The paper suggests not only that such practices represented a quite different trajectory from that experienced in other parts of Occupied Manila, but also that a more thorough exploration of the Manila Chinese during wartime—one which goes beyond questions of mere collaboration and/or resistance—will encourage us to question some of the assumptions that underpin recent scholarship about this community.
Imputation of moderate-density genotypes from low-density panels is of increasing interest in genomic selection, because it can dramatically reduce genotyping costs. Several imputation software packages have been developed, but they vary in imputation accuracy, and imputed genotypes may be inconsistent among methods. An AdaBoost-like approach is proposed to combine imputation results from several independent software packages, i.e. Beagle(v3.3), IMPUTE(v2.0), fastPHASE(v1.4), AlphaImpute, findhap(v2) and Fimpute(v2), with each package serving as a basic classifier in an ensemble-based system. The ensemble-based method computes weights sequentially for all classifiers, and combines results from component methods via weighted majority ‘voting’ to determine unknown genotypes. The data included 3078 registered Angus cattle, each genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. SNP genotypes on three chromosomes (BTA1, BTA16 and BTA28) were used to compare imputation accuracy among methods, and the application involved the imputation of 50K genotypes covering 29 chromosomes based on a set of 5K genotypes. Beagle and Fimpute had the greatest accuracy among the six imputation packages, which ranged from 0·8677 to 0·9858. The proposed ensemble method was better than any of these packages, but the sequence of independent classifiers in the voting scheme affected imputation accuracy. The ensemble systems yielding the best imputation accuracies were those that had Beagle as first classifier, followed by one or two methods that utilized pedigree information. A salient feature of the proposed ensemble method is that it can solve imputation inconsistencies among different imputation methods, hence leading to a more reliable system for imputing genotypes relative to independent methods.
This essay explores the nature of the changing scholarship on Chiang Kai-shek, reviewing some of the established assessments which dominated writing about Chiang for much of the latter half of the twentieth century, but contrasting these with new assessments which are now emerging in both Chinese- and English-language scholarship. The authors examine the ways in which new access to the Chiang Kai-shek diaries, a changing cross-Strait relationship and new attempts to rehabilitate the Republican past in the People's Republic of China have all had major ramifications for scholarship on Chiang. They tease out some of the exciting new threads that such scholarship is leading to, but also ask questions about the limitations and shortcomings of some of the approaches that are now dominant in the field.
A look at the landscape of south-eastern Britain in the Roman period shows a widespread, if uneven, pattern of the stone founded, sometimes elaborately furnished buildings that archaeologists call villas (fig. 1). But what are we to make of these buildings and their significance to the landscapes of the western Roman provinces? Over the years much archaeological debate about villas has tended to centre on two rather different perspectives. In one, the villa is seen as primarily an economic institution; the core of an estate whose presence is an indication of a ‘Romanised’ agricultural landscape producing food and other materials for the urban and military markets of the empire. Implicit in some of this work has been a tendency to see villas as de facto indicators of agricultural improvement in the post-conquest landscape. In the second view villas are seen more as social phenomenon in which they are regarded as a form of cultured status display. Thus we have seen much focus on the developing architecture and spatial organisation of villa houses leading sometimes to rather sterile speculation on the status of their owners or the detailed nature of their resident household(s).
Whilst both approaches have value, alone each represents an unnecessarily constrained view of the idea of the villa and its importance in social discourses about becoming Roman in the western Roman provinces. In an insightful essay on the subject Nicholas Purcell noted that such a distinction was unnecessary to Roman eyes, rightly concluding that ‘the choice of the villa owner is not between on the one hand quietly getting on with the agricultural job and on the other making a splash through elegant decoration; agriculture and elegance are alternative forms of display’. In developing the ideal of the villa there was in practice no incompatibility between the care with which the house and the agricultural facilities were designed.
In this paper I want to focus on this dual view of the villa and how the study of rural sites more generally can help us to understand the extent to which such ideas were enacted, adapted or ignored in the western provinces. In the overview that follows, I want to focus on three aspects of this process at work.
Photoluminescence (PL) spectra obtained with correlated set of experiments investigating grain boundary characteristics and diffusion processes in nanocrystalline silicon alloys (nc-Si:H), provide insight regarding formation and passivation of electronic defects in these regions. Based upon current results and previous works we believe thermally driven processes induce a PL band centered at 0.7 eV upon thermal annealing, and most likely involve diffusion of hydrogen and oxygen near interfaces. A nc-Si:H sample set with varied crystal volume fraction, Xc, was subject to thermal annealing treatments at different temperatures – each exceeding the deposition temperature. Fourier-transform photoluminescence (FTPL) and Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), were employed to correlate the relative 0.7 eV defect band emergence with compositional changes indicative of Si–Hx and Si–O species, for each sample, at each temperature, respectively. Hydrogen effusion data provide additional perspective.
We find the Xc to strongly affect susceptibility of nc-Si:H to oxygen related effects. The higher the Xc, the more readily oxygen penetrates the nc-Si:H network. We attribute this relationship to elevated diffusivity of oxygen in highly crystalline nc-Si:H materials, owing to their abundance of gain boundaries and interfaces, which serve as pathways for impurity migration. These findings corroborate the expectation that oxygen impurities and diffusion processes contribute to development of microstructural features giving rise to radiative recombination through deep defects in nc-Si:H.
The worldwide obesity epidemic over the last 20 years has led to a dramatic increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Estimates of prevalence vary depending on the population studied and the methods used to assess hepatic fat content, but are commonly quoted as between 10 and 30% of the adults in the Western hemisphere. Fatty liver develops when fatty acid uptake and synthesis in the liver exceeds fatty acid oxidation and export as TAG. Studies of pathogenesis point to insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation being central to the development and progression of the disease. A proportion of individuals with fatty liver develop progressive disease, though large prospective longitudinal studies are lacking. Nevertheless, fatty liver is associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. Management of fatty liver centres around lifestyle and dietary measures to induce controlled and sustained weight loss. Management of cardiovascular risk factors aims to reduce mortality, while certain dietary interventions have been shown to reduce steatosis and inflammation. Specific pharmacological treatments also show promise, but their use is not widespread. A multi-system and multi-disciplinary approach to the management of this disorder is proposed.
Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H), a mixture of nanometer sized crystallites and amorphous silicon tissue, demonstrates a photoluminescence band centered at ∼ 0.7 eV, which emerges in response to annealing at an onset temperature of ∼ 200–300 °C. This temperature range correlates well with hydrogen effusion spectroscopy studies, and evidence suggests thermal liberation of hydrogen from grain boundary regions allows oxidation of crystallite surfaces during annealing. We tentatively attribute the 0.7 eV PL in nc-Si:H to deep donor defect states related to oxygen precipitates, and argue for the possible involvement of dislocations inside of crystallites to accompany these precipitates.
This paper presents the results of a programme of research on an unusual group of prehistoric stone settings located on Exmoor, south-west England. Taking a variety of semi-geometric and apparently random forms, a total of 59 settings have been identified, with new discoveries taking place on a regular basis. These stone settings are remarkable for their diminutive size, with component stones often standing to heights of 100 mm or less, a factor which has led to their being termed ‘minilithic’. Through reference to the results of a programme of geophysical survey and small-scale excavation targeted upon a particularly rich cluster of settings around the upper reaches of Badgworthy Water, issues of morphology, dating, relationships, and the implications of the Exmoor miniliths for developing understandings monumentality are discussed.