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In this article, we argue that rising housing prices increase voter approval of incumbent governments because such a rise increases personal wealth, which leads to greater voter satisfaction. This effect is strongest under right-wing governments because those who benefit from rising prices—homeowners—are more likely to be right-leaning. Non-homeowners, who are more likely to vote for left-leaning parties, will view rising housing prices as a disadvantage and therefore feel the government does not serve them well, which will mitigate the advantage to left-wing governments. We find support for our arguments using both macro-level data (housing prices and government approval ratings in 16 industrialized countries between 1960 and 2017) and micro-level data (housing prices and individuals’ vote choices in the United Kingdom using the British Household Panel Survey). The findings imply that housing booms benefit incumbent governments generally and right-wing ones in particular.
Lichens of the Ramalina siliquosa complex dominate seashore cliffs in Europe and South-East Asia, but their taxonomy has been vigorously debated for over a century. On many cliffs, they exhibit a bewildering zonation of chemotypes that resembles the classic zonation of organisms that occupy the littoral zone below. Do the chemotypes represent separate species, or infraspecific variation? To better understand the systematics of this group, sequences from four genetic loci (ITS, IGS, RPB1 and RPB2) were obtained for 59 samples from Denmark, France, Iceland, Norway, UK, Japan and Korea, including all major chemotypes. Maximum likelihood analysis of these sequences, together with sequences from 36 other Ramalina species, reveals that the complex comprises two distinct phylogenetic lineages, each including multiple chemotypes. These two putative species-level lineages correspond to the currently accepted taxa R. cuspidata and R. siliquosa. There is no evidence that these two taxa are phylogenetic sister species. Consequently, the explanation of this chemotype complex as an example of ‘sibling speciation’ is rejected. Specimens traditionally called ‘R. siliquosa’ from South-East Asia form a third clade, identified here as R. semicuspidata, with an additional, divaricatic acid chemotype. Other results include a robustly supported clade of Ramalina species that produce medullary depsides and depsidones; this clade includes another well-supported clade of south-eastern United States coastal plain and tropical Ramalina species. By contrast, large, strap-shaped Ramalina species that lack medullary depsides and depsidones occur in separate lineages. In addition, close relationships between the following groups of species are indicated: R. farinacea with R. subfarinacea; R. fraxinea with R. leptocarpha, R. menziesii and R. subleptocarpha; R. sinensis with R. unifolia. Furthermore, a new, variolaric acid-only chemotype is reported for R. farinacea, and a new, acid-deficient chemotype is reported for a more broadly circumscribed R. culbersoniorum.
Transient electronics represents recent technology that can partially or completely degrade, dissolve, or disintegrate under certain conditions in actively and passively controlled ways. They offer applications as eco-friendly alternatives to existing electronic components, implantable biomedical devices, and software/hardware protection systems. The degradable characteristics of materials and circuits, however, lead to various fabrication issues and difficulties in manufacturing complex systems requiring fine and elaborate design layouts and microfabrication procedures under thermally and chemically harsh conditions. Identifying advanced materials and the development of manufacturing processes compatible with established transient materials have been conducted for several years to address these issues. In this article, we focus on recent trends in manufacturing technologies for transient electronic systems, including direct fabrication of electronics on transient substrates using organic–inorganic electronic materials, screen-printing approaches particularly for conductive traces, microfabrication combined with multiple transfer-printing techniques, and large-scale, foundry-compatible technologies.
Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 Å and 7082 Å found in symbiotic stars are important spectroscopic tools to probe the mass transfer process. Adopting a Monte Carlo approach, we perform a profile analysis of Raman O VI features of the yellow SySt AG Draconis and make a comparison with the spectrum obtained with CFHT. It is assumed that the accretion flow is convergent on the entering side with enhanced O VI emission and the flux ratio F(1032)/F(1038)∼1, whereas on the opposite side the flow is divergent with low O VI emission and F(1032/F(1038)∼2. Our best fit to the spectrum is obtained from our model with a mass-loss rate of the giant ∼4 × 10−7 M⊙ yr−1. A slight red wing excess in the spectrum suggests the presence of bipolar neutral components receding in the directions perpendicular to the binary orbital plane with a speed ∼70km s−1
We present a high-resolution optical spectrum of the symbiotic nova RR Tel obtained with MIKE at Magellan-Clay telescope. RR Tel is a wide binary system of a hot white dwarf and a Mira with an orbital period of a few decades, where the white dwarf is accreting through gravitational capture of some fraction of material shed by the Mira. We find broad emission features at 6825, 7082, 7023, and 7053 Å, which are formed through Raman scattering of far-UV O VI ⋋⋋ 1032 and 1038 Å, C II ⋋⋋ 1036 and 1037 Å with atomic hydrogen. Raman O VI features exhibit clear double-peak profiles indicative of an accretion flow with a characteristic speed ∼ 30 km s−1, whereas the Raman C II features have a single Gaussian profile. We perform a profile analysis of the Raman O VI by assuming that O VI emission traces the accretion flow around the white dwarf with a fiducial scale of 1 AU. A comparison of the restored fluxes of C II ⋋⋋ 1036 and 1037 from Raman C II features with the observed C II ⋋ 1335 multiplet is consistent with the distance of RR Tel ∼ 2.6 kpc based on interstellar extinction of C II.
Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the udder, results in reduced milk production and poor milk quality. Mastitis is usually, but not always, a response to pathogen infection. High milk yield can produce oxidative stress in the mammary tissue. High milk yield is also known to be associated with bovine mastitis. Thus, in the current study, we hypothesised that oxidative stress increases inflammatory responses in bovine mammary cells. To examine the hypothesis, we produced cellular oxidative stress and investigated resulting inflammatory responses in bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). To produce oxidative stress, cells were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS; e.g., superoxide anion)-producing agent, menadione (MD; 0–10 µm; 6 h). To ensure the ROS-induced responses, cells were pretreated with an antioxidant NAC (0–10 mm; 1 h). Results showed that MD elevated intracellular ROS levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a biomarker of inflammation. Pretreatment of cells with NAC attenuated MD-induced COX-2 expression by scavenging intracellular ROS and enhancing intracellular glutathione levels. MD-induced COX-2 expression was mediated by activation of extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). NAC attenuated activation of these intracellular signalling molecules. Treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors for ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB confirmed the association of these signalling pathways in MD-induced COX-2 expression. These results support our hypothesis that oxidative stress, which is found in high-yielding dairy cows, can produce cellular inflammation in bovine mammary alveolar cells and prevention of oxidative stress can attenuate such pathological responses. This may be relevant for cases of clinical mastitis for which no pathogen can be isolated.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Suicide rates are high among elderly individuals experiencing socioeconomic insecurity. Socioeconomic security is of critical importance for elderly individuals and directly affects mental health, including suicidal behavior. Thus, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and suicidal ideation in elderly individuals.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on 58,590 individuals 65 years of age or older from the Korean Community Health Survey 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify relationships between socioeconomic factors (food insecurity, household income, and living arrangement) and suicidal ideation in the elderly population.
The study included 58,590 participants (24,246 males and 34,344 females). Of those, 2,847 males and 6,418 females experienced suicidal ideation. Participants with food insecure were more likely to experience suicidal ideation than were those who were food secure (males: OR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.34–1.90; females: OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.38–1.72). We found a similar pattern among participants with a low household income and those living alone. Additionally, male and female subjects who were food insecure and living alone or food insecure and had a low household income showed a marked increase in suicidal ideation.
Our findings suggest that low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation among the elderly. Furthermore, intervention programs that address the prevalence of elderly suicide, particularly among those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, are needed.
Previous studies suggest that there is a strong association between depression and cognitive decline, and that concurrent depressive symptoms in MCI patients could contribute to a difference in neurocognitive characteristics compared to MCI patients without depression. The authors tried to compare neurocognitive functions between MCI patients with and without depression by analyzing the results of neuropsychological tests.
Participants included 153 MCI patients. Based on the diagnosis of major depressive disorder, the participants were divided into two groups: depressed MCI (MCI/D+) versus non-depressed MCI (MCI/D−). The general cognitive and functional statuses of participants were evaluated. And a subset of various neuropsychological tests was presented to participants. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed using Student t-test or χ2 test.
A total of 153 participants were divided into two groups: 94 MCI/D+ patients and 59 MCI/D− patients. Age, sex, and years of education were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in general cognitive status between MCI/D+ and MCI/D− patients, but MCI/D+ participants showed significantly reduced performance in the six subtests (Contrasting Program, Go-no-go task, Fist-edge-palm task, Constructional Praxis, Memory Recall, TMT-A) compared with MCI/D− patients.
There were significantly greater deficits in neurocognitive functions including verbal memory, executive function, attention/processing speed, and visual memory in MCI/D+ participants compared to MCI/D−. Once the biological mechanism is identified, distinct approaches in treatment or prevention will be determined.
Tumor angiogenesis is a key regulator of tumor growth and metastasis. Assays allowing the analysis of tumor angiogenesis are an essential tool to elucidate the role played by the tumor microenvironment in regulating tumor angiogenesis. The assays should also be capable of systematically investigating the effects of physiologically relevant, mechanical and chemical stimuli and their synergistic interactions. The high optical resolution of microfluidic assays facilitates three-dimensional studies of cellular morphogenesis. Their versatility can be applied to study the multi-parameter control of angiogenic factors.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Sense of Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), a quality of life measure, for people with spinal cord injury. Four hundred and five participants were recruited from the Canadian Paraplegia Association for this study. The participants were asked to complete a research packet containing a demographic questionnaire, the SWBI, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Acceptance of Disability Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the SWBI and correlational analyses of the SWBI factors with other psychosocial variables were conducted. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses validated a four-factor structure (financial, family and social, psychological, and physical wellbeing) for the SWBI. SWBI factors are positively related to self-esteem and disability acceptance. With continuing research to document reliability and validity, the SWBI appears to have great potential as a vocational rehabilitation outcome measurement for people with spinal cord injury.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
This study examined the role of orthography in the production and storage of spoken words. Korean speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/, including [ɦ] and ø. They were provided with the same auditory stimuli but with varying exposure to spelling. One group was presented with the letter for ø (<ㅇ>), the second group, the letter for [ɦ] (<ㅎ>), and the third group, auditory input only. In picture-naming tasks, the participants presented with <ㅇ> produced fewer words with [ɦ] than those presented with <ㅎ>. In a spelling recall task, the participants who were not exposed to spelling displayed various types of spellings for variants, but after exposure to spelling, they began to produce spellings as provided in the task. These results suggest that orthographic information influences the production of words via an offline restructuring of the phonological representation.
We report on the formation of highly flexible and transparent TiO2/Ag/ITO multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayer films were investigated as a function of oxide thickness. The transmission window gradually shifted toward lower energies with increasing oxide thickness. The TiO2 (40 nm)/Ag (18 nm)/ITO (40 nm) films gave the transmittance of 93.1% at 560 nm. The relationship between transmittance and oxide thickness was simulated using the scattering matrix method to understand high transmittance. As the oxide thickness increased from 20 to 50 nm, the carrier concentration gradually decreased from 1.08 × 1022 to 6.66 × 1021 cm−3, while the sheet resistance varied from 5.8 to 6.1 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit reached a maximum at 40 nm and then decreased with increasing oxide thickness. The change in resistance for the 60 nm-thick ITO single film rapidly increased with increasing bending cycles, while that of the TiO2/Ag/ITO (40 nm/18 nm/40 nm) film remained virtually unchanged during the bending test.
The junction resistance control of conducting networks is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that silver nanowire (AgNW) networks can be stabilized by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which were functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UHP) moieties. UHP-modified SWCNTs allowed us to fabricate AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs without adding additional dispersant molecules. The stabilization of AgNW networks was achieved by minimizing the joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with the work function modulated SWCNTs. We propose that the electrical transportation pathway was modulated by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film.
Social support programs for dementia caregivers were widely used in order to reduce care burden. We investigated which types of social supports can reduce psychological and non-psychological burdens of dementia caregivers, and explored the mechanism of those social supports.
We evaluated 731 community-dwelling dementia patients and their caregivers from the National Survey of Dementia Care in South Korea. We investigated the five types of social supports (emotional support, informational support, tangible support, positive social interaction, affectionate support) using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey in each caregiver. The mechanisms of specific types of social support on psychological/non-psychological burden were examined using path analysis.
Positive social interaction and affectionate support reduced psychological burden via direct and indirect paths. Tangible support reduced the non-psychological burden via direct and indirect paths. Informational support and emotional support were not helpful for reducing psychological or non-psychological burden. A maximum of 20% of psychological burden could be relieved by positive social interaction and 10.3% of that could be reduced by affectionate support. Tangible support was associated with a 15.1% maximal improvement in non-psychological burden.
In order to reduce caregiver burden in dementia effectively, psychosocial interventions should be tailored to target type of caregiver burden.
Blackberry is a fruiting berry species with very high nutrient contents. With the recent increasing consumer demand for blackberries, new sources of germplasm and breeding techniques are required to improve blackberry production. This study was carried out to evaluate the genetic diversity (GD) and relationship among 55 blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) mutants derived from γ-ray treatment (52 lines) and N-methyl-N′-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment (three lines) using an inter-simple sequence repeat marker. A total of 18 bands were amplified with an average of 3.6 bands per primer. Among them, eight bands were identified to be polymorphic with a rate of 44.4%. In addition, the GD information content values were highest in the 60 Gy treatment population and the GD values were higher in the γ-ray treatment populations than in the MNU treatment population. According to a cluster analysis, all the mutant lines can be classified into five categories, and the genetic distance was greatest between the 80 Gy-irradiated population and other populations. These results indicate that mutant lines have high GD and can be effectively utilized for improving blackberry breeding.
Colloidal dispersion of nanocarbon (NC) materials in dilute solutions or pastes is prerequisite for applications of NC-based electrodes from flexible electronics and flexible conducting fibers to electrochemical devices. Here, we show a straightforward method for fabricating NC suspensions with >10% weight concentrations in absence of organic dispersants. The method involves introducing supramolecular quadruple hydrogen bonding motifs into the NC materials without sacrificing the electrical conductivity.