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Penicillin (PCN) allergy labels affect antimicrobial selection for surgical prophylaxis. We aimed to increase the percentage of cefazolin usage in patients with PCN allergy labels undergoing orthopedic surgery from 50% to 80%.
Quality improvement initiative.
Children’s Mercy Kansas City (CMKC), a freestanding children’s hospital.
Children scheduled for an orthopedic surgery (excluding spinal surgery) at CMKC who had a PCN allergy label and received a perioperative antibiotic.
No standardized process existed to identify and clarify PCN-allergic–labeled patients preoperatively. We developed a process for patient identification combined with a pharmacist phone interview for PCN allergy clarification. In plan–do–study–act (PDSA) part 1, we implemented a computer-generated patient list. In PDSA part 2, we combined automated identification with a phone interview. In PDSA part 3, we enhanced the patient list, making it timely and concise. In PDSA part 4, we included a PCN allergy clarification electronic survey to caregivers via the electronic medical record.
Cefazolin use in PCN-allergic surgical patients increased from 50% to 74% following interventions. Patients who had their PCN allergy label clarified were 4 times more likely to receive cefazolin compared to those whose allergy labels were not clarified (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.68–11.61; P = 0.003). Moreover, 90% of patients received cefazolin when their PCN allergy was clarified and cefazolin was recommended. When a PCN allergy label was not clarified, only 59% of patients received cefazolin.
Appropriate clarification and documentation of PCN allergy labels increases the use of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis.
To evaluate efficiency and impact of a novel antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) prospective-audit-with-feedback (PAF) review process using the Cerner Multi-Patient Task List (MPTL).
Retrospective cohort study.
A 367-bed free-standing, pediatric academic medical center.
The ASP PAF review process expanded to monitor all systemic and inhaled antibiotics through use of the MPTL on July 23, 2020. Average number of daily ASP reviews, absolute number of monthly interventions, and time to conduct ASP reviews were compared between the preimplementation period and the postimplementation period following expansion. Antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for overall and select antibiotics were compared between periods. ASP intervention characteristics were assessed.
Average daily ASP reviews significantly increased following program expansion (9 vs 14 reviews; P < .0001), and the absolute number of ASP interventions each month also increased (34 vs 52 interventions; P ≤ .0001). Time to conduct daily ASP reviews increased in the postimplementation period (1.03 vs 1.32 hours). Overall antibiotic DOT per 1,000 patient days significantly decreased in the postimplementation period (457.9 vs 427.9; P < .0001) as well as utilization of select, narrow-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin and clindamycin. Intervention type and antibiotics were similar between periods. The ASP documented 128 “nonantibiotic interventions” in the postimplementation period, including culture and/or susceptibility testing (32.8%), immunizations (25.8%), and additional diagnostic testing (22.7%).
Implementation of an ASP PAF review process using the MPTL allowed for efficient expansion of a pre-existing ASP and a decrease in overall antibiotic utilization. ASP documentation was enhanced to fully track the impact of the program.
To evaluate the clinical impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on high-risk pediatric patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Free-standing pediatric hospital.
This study included patients who received an ASP review between March 3, 2008, and March 2, 2017, and were considered high-risk, including patients receiving care by the neonatal intensive care (NICU), hematology/oncology (H/O), or pediatric intensive care (PICU) medical teams.
The ASP recommendations included stopping antibiotics; modifying antibiotic type, dose, or duration; or obtaining an infectious diseases consultation. The outcomes evaluated in all high-risk patients with ASP recommendations were (1) hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection, (2) mortality, and (3) 30-day readmission. Subanalyses were conducted to evaluate hospital length of stay (LOS) and tracheitis treatment failure. Multivariable generalized linear models were performed to examine the relationship between ASP recommendations and each outcome after adjusting for clinical service and indication for treatment.
The ASP made 2,088 recommendations, and 50% of these recommendations were to stop antibiotics. Recommendation agreement occurred in 70% of these cases. Agreement with an ASP recommendation was not associated with higher odds of mortality or hospital readmission. Patients with a single ASP review and agreed upon recommendation had a shorter median LOS (10.2 days vs 13.2 days; P < .05). The ASP recommendations were not associated with high rates of tracheitis treatment failure.
ASP recommendations do not result in worse clinical outcomes among high-risk pediatric patients. Most ASP recommendations are to stop or to narrow antimicrobial therapy. Further work is needed to enhance stewardship efforts in high-risk pediatric patients.
We retrospectively evaluated the effect of penicillin adverse drug reaction (ADR) labeling on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Cefazolin was administered in 86% of penicillin ADR-negative (−) and 28% penicillin ADR-positive (+) cases. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use was more common in ADR(+) cases and was more commonly associated with perioperative adverse drug events.
We analyzed antifungal and antiviral prescribing among high-risk children across freestanding children’s hospitals. Antifungal and antiviral days of therapy varied across hospitals. Benchmarking antifungal and antiviral use and developing antimicrobial stewardship strategies to optimize use of these high cost agents is needed.
The costs of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in children’s hospitals have not been described previously. We assessed ASP costs using an online survey administered to ASP leaders at U.S. children’s hospitals. ASP costs varied from $17,000 to $388,500 annually (median, $187,400). Overall costs were not correlated with hospital size.
The number of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) is increasing and program evaluation is a key component to improve efficiency and enhance stewardship strategies.
To determine the antimicrobials and diagnoses most strongly associated with a recommendation provided by a well-established pediatric ASP.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Retrospective cohort study from March 3, 2008, to March 2, 2013, of all ASP reviews performed at a free-standing pediatric hospital.
ASP recommendations were classified as follows: stop therapy, modify therapy, optimize therapy, or consult infectious diseases. A multinomial distribution model to determine the probability of each ASP recommendation category was performed on the basis of the specific antimicrobial agent or disease category. A logistic model was used to determine the odds of recommendation disagreement by the prescribing clinician.
The ASP made 2,317 recommendations: stop therapy (45%), modify therapy (26%), optimize therapy (19%), or consult infectious diseases (10%). Third-generation cephalosporins (0.20) were the antimicrobials with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas linezolid (0.05) had the lowest probability. Community-acquired pneumonia (0.26) was the diagnosis with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas fever/neutropenia (0.04) had the lowest probability. Disagreement with ASP recommendations by the prescribing clinician occurred 22% of the time, most commonly involving community-acquired pneumonia and ear/nose/throat infections.
Evaluation of our pediatric ASP identified specific clinical diagnoses and antimicrobials associated with an increased likelihood of an ASP recommendation. Focused interventions targeting these high-yield areas may result in increased program efficiency and efficacy.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1–8
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