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WHILE MANY IMPORTANT theological texts in the Middle Ages were translated into English, Latin remained the language of devotional authority. Translators in prologues and epilogues were careful to apologize for their inability to get the move from Latin to English just right, or were quick to point out that they had made sure to drop the heavily theological content so that the less lettered could understand what they were about to read. The unknown “Englisshe compyloure” (English compiler) of the late Middle English collection of women's saints’ lives in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Douce 114 does just this, writing that he hopes those who read it “forgif hym alle defautes that he hath made in compilynge […] this Englysche so as is oute of Latyne” (forgive him all errors that he has made in compiling […] this English thus as [it] is from Latin). The English translation is hence the inferior byproduct of the original. The underlying assumption is that the Latin is the language of learning and theological understanding, the English the language for the masses, for the more simple reader.
However, as Middle English devotional literature develops its own vocabulary and compositions separate from the translated text, there is a subtle shift in how the language is received and what it means to read in English. One of the more interesting places that this shift manifests itself is in the massive Latin compilation known as the Speculum spiritualium (The Spiritual Mirror, ca. 1400–30), which, despite clearly being written for the Latin-literate, deliberately contained some English text within it. This compilation, which in manuscript form Ian Doyle notes “occupies 208 leaves of large quarto format in double columns,” with approximately “315,000 words divided into seven parts,” was most likely Carthusian and contains pieces from several devotional texts—from usual suspects (Walter Hilton, ca. 1340/45–1396, for example) and also unusual ones (such as the text that will become the basis for Disce mori (Learn to Die), fifteenth century). While the vast majority of these texts are in Latin, there are three small excerpts in English: two poems (“Ihesu that art heven kyng” and “Mary thou were greet with loveli cheere”) and an excerpt from Richard Rolle's Form of Living (ca. 1348; Rolle, ca. 1300–1349).
The health of babies, children and young people is fundamentally different from that of adults, so their healthcare must reflect their unique needs and engage their parents, family members and communities. Paediatric Nursing in Australia and New Zealand introduces nursing students to the care of infants, children, young people and their families in a range of clinical and community settings across Australasia. This third edition includes New Zealand content and an increased focus on families. New chapters cover health services available for Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Māori children, the transition to parenthood for new families, children's sleep patterns and behaviour, and paediatric health in school settings. Case studies and reflective questions encourage students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Written by an expert team, Paediatric Nursing in Australia and New Zealand equips future nurses with the knowledge and skills to provide evidence-based care to babies, children and their families.
This introduction to the second edition of the Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology discusses phases of development in the field and distinguishes between this and practice as an accredited forensic psychologist. The status of Forensic Psychology as an autonomous discipline is evaluated and found to be a 'rendezvous' subject, meaning it stands at the crossroads between psychology, criminology and law. Definitions of forensic psychology remain 'fuzzy', and this volume adopts a broad usage in that it is taken to cover a wide range of psychological theories and methods and applied to problems, processes and personnel across the spectrum of criminal and civil justice systems. Analysis is presented of recent topics covered in the key journals, and it is noted that there is a dearth of coverage of diversity issues and research addressing victims needs which gaps the Handbook’s chapters attempt to address.