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In the decade since the publication of the first edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology, the field has expanded into areas such as social work and education, while maintaining the interest of criminal justice researchers and policy makers. This new edition provides cutting-edge and comprehensive coverage of the key theoretical perspectives, assessment methods, and interventions in forensic psychology. The chapters address substantive topics such as acquisitive crime, domestic violence, mass murder, and sexual violence, while also exploring emerging areas of research such as the expansion of cybercrime, particularly child sexual exploitation, as well as aspects of terrorism and radicalisation. Reflecting the global reach of forensic psychology and its wide range of perspectives, the international team of contributors emphasise diversity and cross-reference between adults, adolescents, and children to deliver a contemporary picture of the discipline.
Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health and social care workers have faced unprecedented professional demands, all of which are likely to have placed considerable strain on their psychological well-being.
To measure the national prevalence of mental health symptoms within healthcare staff, and identify individual and organisational predictors of well-being.
The COVID-19 Staff Wellbeing Survey is a longitudinal online survey of psychological well-being among health and social care staff in Northern Ireland. The survey included four time points separated by 3-month intervals; time 1 (November 2020; n = 3834) and time 2 (February 2021; n = 2898) results are presented here. At time 2, 84% of respondents had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The survey included four validated psychological well-being questionnaires (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress and insomnia), as well as demographic and organisational measures.
At time 1 and 2, a high proportion of staff reported moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (30–36%), anxiety (26–27%), post-traumatic stress (30–32%) and insomnia (27–28%); overall, significance tests and effect size data suggested psychological well-being was generally stable between November 2020 and February 2021 for health and social care staff. Multiple linear regression models indicated that perceptions of less effective communication within their organisation predicted greater levels of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and insomnia.
This study highlights the need to offer psychological support to all health and social care staff, and to communicate with staff regularly, frequently and clearly regarding COVID-19 to help protect staff psychological well-being.
Repeated antigen testing of 12 SARS-CoV-2–positive nursing home residents using Abbott BinaxNOW™ identified 9/9 (100%) culture-positive specimens up to 6 days after initial positive test. Antigen positivity lasted 2–24 days. Antigen positivity might last beyond the infectious period, but was reliable in residents with evidence of early infection.
To systematically review and synthesise qualitative evidence about determinants of self-management in adults with SMI. The goal is to use findings from this review to inform the design of effective self-management strategies for people with SMI and LTCs.
People living with serious mental illness (SMI) have a reduced life expectancy by around 15–20 years, mainly due to the high prevalence of long-term physical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. People with SMI face many challenges when trying to manage their physical health. Little is known about the determinants of self-management – managing the emotional and practical issues – of long-term conditions (LTCs) for people with SMI.
Six databases, including CINAHL and MEDLINE, were searched to identify qualitative studies that explored people's perceptions about determinants of self-management in adults with SMI (with or without comorbid LTCs). Self-management was defined according to the American Association of Diabetes Educator's self-care behaviours (AADE7). Determinants were defined according to the Capabilities, Opportunity, Motivations and Behaviours (COM-B) framework. Eligible studies were purposively sampled for synthesis according to the richness of the data (assessed using Ames et al (2017)'s data richness scale), and thematically synthesised.
Twenty-six articles were included in the synthesis. Seven studies focused on self-management of LTCs, with the remaining articles exploring self-management of SMI. Six analytic themes and 28 sub-themes were identified from the synthesis. The themes included: the additional burden of SMI; living with comorbidities; beliefs and attitudes about self-management; support from others for self-management; social and environmental factors; routine, structure and planning. Capabilities for self-management were linked to people's perceptions about the support they received for their SMI and LTC from healthcare professionals, family and friends. Opportunities for self-management were more commonly expressed in the context of social and environmental factors. Motivation for self-management was influenced by beliefs and attitudes, whilst being closely related to the burden of SMI.
The themes identified from the synthesis suggest that capabilities, opportunities and motivations for self-management can be negatively influenced by the experience of SMI, whilst social and professional support, improved access to resources, and increased involvement in care, could promote self-management. Support programmes for people with SMI and LTCs need to account for these experiences and adapt to meet the unique needs of this population.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
In their introduction to Probable Truth: Editing Medieval Texts from Britain in the Twenty-First Century, Vincent Gillespie and Anne Hudson note that there has historically been a divide, albeit an artificial one, between the literary critic and the textual editor. They suggest, though, that while critics can redirect or circumvent a problem that the text proposes, editors never can – they must confront head on the problems of the text and find a way to resolve or answer those problems in their product. The work of the critic is largely dependent on the work of the editor, but editorial work can be viewed as ‘drudgery’ and somehow less innovative than literary criticism. Of course, in medieval studies many people are both editors and critics, but this labour can still be seen as distinct, their work categorically divided. In these traditional senses, Michael Sargent is both editor and critic. However, he has from the start resisted this taxonomy and shown that the work of the editor is critical, the work of the critic, editorial.
This combination can be seen throughout Michael's career, but perhaps most clearly at its start – with his dissertation ‘James Grenehalgh as Textual Critic’, the formative article, ‘The Transmission by the English Carthusians of some Late Medieval Spiritual Writings’, and in his two major critical editions, Nicholas Love's The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ and, most recently, Walter Hilton's second book of The Scale of Perfection. There are many notable articles and contributions among Michael's works, but to list and discuss them all would constitute an entire volume in itself (all of his published works can be seen at the end of this volume). These works serve as signposts in his evolution as an editor and critic, pointing to the ways in which he has expanded and influenced the field of medieval devotional and editorial studies.
Michael's 1976 essay for the Journal of Ecclesiastical History, ‘The Transmission by the English Carthusians of some Late Medieval Spiritual Writings’, literally remapped the context for English medieval devotional texts and their transmission. It is one of his most cited essays with good reason, as it lays out the ways in which the Carthusian order deliberately translated and disseminated medieval devotional literature.
Bridget's vision, Syon Abbey and double monasteries in England
In this essay I will look at how Syon Abbey served as a site of religious questions and problems concerning orthodoxy and gender in medieval England and examine the ways in which the abbey's legislative texts reinforced ambiguous gender binaries and representations within the order's double structure. At the centre of these conflicts, anxieties and disputes stood the body of the nun. Her description, along with the limits of her agency and the transgressions she has the potential to commit are the issues to which the abbey's texts returned. Within the double order, the nuns’ bodies are brought into relief against the backdrop of the men; the presence of the brothers focuses the gaze on the sexualized bodies of the nuns in ways that a standard female-only convent would not permit. The Syon ‘Additions’, a set of legislative supplements to the general Birgittine rule, offer a particular insight into the way that the order in England embraced and struggled with the double monastic structure. The body of the Syon nun lay at the core of this struggle.
Bridget did not plan for an order of nuns in the usual way – founding a house, following an established rule, finding Church and state support. Instead, Bridget had a revelation of what her order and rule would look like, and it was unlike other established orders. Bridget's vision decreed a house of sixty nuns, with a delineated group of brothers to assist them: thirteen priests, four deacons and eight lay brothers. This was one of Bridget's most notable departures from other houses, even those with a double monastic structure. Here, Bridget envisioned brothers living and serving under the abbess, the ultimate authority of the house, and she saw the Birgittine brothers (technically not monks) as supporting what was, at its core, a house for women. The brothers, like the sisters, vowed to follow her rule, which she conceived in the visions; however, it did not officially become codified the way she imagined and was interpolated into the Augustinian rule when ultimately implemented. In 1346 the mother house was founded by Bridget in Vadstena, Sweden. Bridget conceived that only the sisters would elect the abbess, who would also lead the brothers.