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A new measurement device is proposed for the calibration of parallel manipulators that can be used to indentify all kinematic parameters with partial pose measurements. The device while restricting the motion of the end-effector to five degree-of-freedom measures three components of posture. A study is performed for a six degree-of-freedom fully parallel Hexa Slide Manipulator. Intrinsic inaccuracies of the measurement device are modeled with two additional identification parameters. Computer simulations show that all parameters, including the additional parameters, can be identified. Results show a significant error reduction, even with noisy measurements, and reveal that the identification is robust against errors in initial guess.
Using magnetically enhanced dc-triode sputtering we have grown metallic multilayers of Ag/Pd and Cu/Pd with modulation wavelengths A ranging from 10 Å to 120 Å. The Ag/Pd films were prepared with two different thickness ratios of silver to palladium (1:1 and 3:1) while the Cu/Pd films all were 1:1. We observed in the Ag/Pd films that the variation with A of the (111) lattice spacing dav in the growth direction is less than 0.5%, independent of the composition. However, these films exhibited enhancements in the Rayleigh sound velocity vR of up to 22% for the 1:1 samples and 13% for the 3:1 Ag/Pd samples respectively as A decreased. The Cu/Pd films showed a slight systematic dependence of dav on A, although its variation was only approximately 0.7%. A softening in vR of up to 7% for the Cu/Pd samples was observed.
The Rayleigh acoustic waves of sputter-deposited Cu/Co, Ag/Pd and Cu/Pd sup-erlattice films were studied using Brillouin scattering. All three of these systems are fcc/fcc superlattices. The dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocities for these films on the superlattice modulation wavelength is discussed.
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