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The incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposure in shared patient rooms was low at our institution: 1.8 per 1,000 shared-room patient days. However, the secondary attack rate (21.6%) was comparable to that reported in household exposures. Lengthier exposures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 conversion. Hospitals should implement measures to decrease shared-room exposures.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
The Cincinnatian (Katian) of the Cincinnati Tri-State area is widely regarded as one of the most fossiliferous sections known (Meyer and Davis, 2009). Echinoderms from these strata include well-described asteroids, crinoids, cyclocystoids, edrioasteroids, glyptocystoids, mitrates, and ophiuroids. John Pope discovered a partially articulated echinoderm in float from the Fairview Formation that does not correspond to any known Cincinnatian echinoderm. Although mentioned in Ubaghs (1966, as a presumable personal communication from Pope, 1960), Haude and Langenstrassen (1976), Reich (2001), and Reich and Haude (2004), this specimen at the Cincinnati Museum Center (CMCPIP 51316) has neither been described nor illustrated; yet, these authors attributed it to Volchovia Hecker, 1938 in the Class Ophiocistioidea. Questions swirl around this fossil: what is its complete morphology; does it belong to Volchovia; whether or not it can be assigned to Volchovia, is it an ophiocistioid? The first step to understand this enigmatic echinoderm is to illustrate and describe the specimen, which is the objective of this note.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is beneficial for managing HIV infection, however the long-term use of HAART may be problematic for healthy weight maintenance. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of race, weight status, and co-morbidities among individuals with HIV. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Self-reported data from 283 participants who completed the Symptom Checklist, the Co-Morbidity Questionnaire, and the Sociodemographic Questionnaire were included in the data analyses. Data were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis on JMP 13. Approximately 50% of participants self-identified as Black, 69% as male, and 35% as having AIDS. Participants’ age ranged from 25 to 66 years (mean age = 43.70 years, SD = 8.14). Participants were grouped by race (self- reported Black or non-Black), and then each group was clustered based on the top three most prevalent symptoms. The clusters identified were least symptomatic, weight gain, and weight loss. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The non-Black weight gain cluster reported a higher incidence of AIDS (70.6% vs 38.2%), nausea (70.6% vs 17.6%), diarrhea (70.6% vs 26.5%), and shortness of breath (58.8% vs 20.6%) compared to the Black weight gain cluster. The Black weight loss cluster reported a higher incidence of cardiovascular symptoms including chest palpitations (42.2% vs 2.7%), chest pain (44.4% vs 8.1%), and shortness of breath (73.3% vs 35.1%) and a higher incidence of all GI symptoms with the most prominent being diarrhea (71.1% vs 48.6%) compared to the non-Black weight loss cluster. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Future studies supporting these results will assist practitioners to target treatments that may prevent adverse health outcomes for individuals with HIV on HAART. Further studies will also assist with setting standards that allow practitioners to provide personalized care for individuals with HIV on HAART.
Multispectral imaging – the acquisition of spatially contiguous imaging data in a modest number (~3–16) of spectral bandpasses – has proven to be a powerful technique for augmenting panchromatic imaging observations on Mars focused on geologic and/or atmospheric context. Specifically, multispectral imaging using modern digital CCD photodetectors and narrowband filters in the 400–1100 nm wavelength region on the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions has provided new information on the composition and mineralogy of fine-grained regolith components (dust, soils, sand, spherules, coatings), rocky surface regions (cobbles, pebbles, boulders, outcrops, and fracture-filling veins), meteorites, and airborne dust and other aerosols. Here we review recent scientific results from Mars surface-based multispectral imaging investigations, including the ways that these observations have been used in concert with other kinds of measurements to enhance the overall scientific return from Mars surface missions.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.