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Identification of treatment-specific predictors of drug therapies for bipolar disorder (BD) is important because only about half of individuals respond to any specific medication. However, medication response in pediatric BD is variable and not well predicted by clinical characteristics.
A total of 121 youth with early course BD (acute manic/mixed episode) were prospectively recruited and randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with quetiapine (n = 71) or lithium (n = 50). Participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline before treatment and 1 week after treatment initiation, and brain morphometric features were extracted for each individual based on MRI scans. Positive antimanic treatment response at week 6 was defined as an over 50% reduction of Young Mania Rating Scale scores from baseline. Two-stage deep learning prediction model was established to distinguish responders and non-responders based on different feature sets.
Pre-treatment morphometry and morphometric changes occurring during the first week can both independently predict treatment outcome of quetiapine and lithium with balanced accuracy over 75% (all p < 0.05). Combining brain morphometry at baseline and week 1 allows prediction with the highest balanced accuracy (quetiapine: 83.2% and lithium: 83.5%). Predictions in the quetiapine and lithium group were found to be driven by different morphometric patterns.
These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment morphometric measures and acute brain morphometric changes can serve as medication response predictors in pediatric BD. Brain morphometric features may provide promising biomarkers for developing biologically-informed treatment outcome prediction and patient stratification tools for BD treatment development.
Despite frequent benzodiazepine use in anxiety disorders, the trajectory and magnitude of benzodiazepine response and the effects of benzodiazepine potency, lipophilicity, and dose on improvement are unknown.
We performed a meta-analysis using weekly symptom severity data from randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled trials of benzodiazepines in adults with anxiety disorders. Response was modeled for the standardized change in continuous measures of anxiety using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Change in anxiety was evaluated as a function of medication, disorder, time, potency, lipophilicity, and standardized dose and compared among benzodiazepines.
Data from 65 trials (73 arms, 7 medications, 7110 patients) were included. In the logarithmic model of response, treatment effects emerged within 1 week of beginning treatment (standardized benzodiazepine-placebo difference = −0.235 ± 0.024, CrI: −0.283 to −0.186, P < .001) and placebo response plateaued at week 4. Doses <6 mg per day (lorazepam equivalents) produced faster and larger improvement than higher doses (P = .039 for low vs medium dose and P = .005 for high vs medium dose) and less lipophilic benzodiazepines (beta = 0.028 ± 0.013, P = .030) produced a greater response over time. Relative to the reference benzodiazepine (lorazepam), clonazepam (beta = −0.217 ± 0.95, P = .021) had a greater trajectory/magnitude of response (other specific benzodiazepines did not statistically differ from lorazepam).
In adults with anxiety disorders, benzodiazepine-related improvement emerges early, and the trajectory and magnitude of improvement is related to dose and lipophilicity. Lower doses and less lipophilic benzodiazepines produce greater improvement.
Despite the prevalence of antidepressant-related sexual side effects, comparisons of treatments for these problematic side effects are lacking.
To address this, we performed a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis to compare interventions for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in adults. Using PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, we identified published and unpublished prospective treatment trials from 1985 to September 2020 (primary outcome: the Arizona sexual experience scale [ASEX] score). The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework.
We identified 57 citations (27 randomized controlled trials, 66 treatment arms, 27 open-label trials, and 3 crossover trials) that evaluated 33 interventions (3108 patients). In the systematic review, 44% (25/57) of trials reported successful interventions; this was more common in open-label (70%, 19/27) compared to placebo-controlled studies (22%, 6/27). In the meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies that used the ASEX (N = 8), pycnogenol was superior to placebo (standardized mean difference: −1.8, 95% credible interval [CrI]: [−3.7 to 0.0]) and there was evidence that, at a 6% threshold, sildenafil improved sexual dysfunction (standardized mean difference: −1.2, 95% CrI [−2.5 to 0.1]). In the meta-analysis including single-arm studies (15 studies), treatment response was more common with sildenafil, tianeptine, maca, tiagabine, and mirtazapine compared to placebo, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance.
While heterogeneity across randomized controlled trials complicates identifying the single best intervention, multiple trials suggest that sildenafil ameliorates antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. More randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the putative efficacy of other interventions.
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