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Chest radiography compares left ventricular decompression in the same patient supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with atrial septal fenestration and subsequently supported with left ventricular assist device with apical cannulation.
This December issue of Cardiology in the Young represents the 11th annual publication generated from the two meetings that compose “HeartWeek in Florida”. “HeartWeek in Florida”, the joint collaborative project sponsored by the Cardiac Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, together with Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute of Saint Petersburg, Florida, averages over 1000 attendees every year and is now recognised as one of the major planks of continuing medical and nursing education for those working in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease in the foetus, neonate, infant, child, and adult. “HeartWeek in Florida” combines the International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease, organised by All Children's Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medicine and entering its 14th year, with the Annual Postgraduate Course in Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, organised by The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and entering its 17th year.
This December, 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young highlights the sessions from HeartWeek 2013 that were held at The Sixth World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in Cape Town, South Africa. We would like to acknowledge the tremendous contributions made to medicine by John Brown, and therefore we dedicate this HeartWeek 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young to him.
Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the second part of the two-part series. Part 1 covered the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. Current therapies only delay progression of the cardiac disease or replace the diseased heart with cardiac transplantation. Stem cells represent a recently discovered novel approach to the treatment of cardiac failure that may facilitate the replacement of diseased cardiac tissue and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function and cardiac regeneration.
A stem cell is defined as a cell with the properties of being clonogenic, self-renewing, and multipotent. In response to intercellular signalling or environmental stimuli, stem cells differentiate into cells derived from any of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, a powerful advantage for regenerative therapies. Meanwhile, a cardiac progenitor cell is a multipotent cell that can differentiate into cells of any of the cardiac lineages, including endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes.
Stem cells can be classified into three categories: (1) adult stem cells, (2) embryonic stem cells, and (3) induced pluripotential cells. Adult stem cells have been identified in numerous organs and tissues in adults, including bone-marrow, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and, as was recently discovered, the heart. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the developing embryo. Finally through transcriptional reprogramming, somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, can be converted into induced pluripotential cells that resemble embryonic stem cells.
Four classes of stem cells that may lead to cardiac regeneration are: (1) Embryonic stem cells, (2) Bone Marrow derived stem cells, (3) Skeletal myoblasts, and (4) Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells. Embryonic stem cells are problematic because of several reasons: (1) the formation of teratomas, (2) potential immunologic cellular rejection, (3) low efficiency of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, typically 1% in culture, and (4) ethical and political issues. As of now, bone marrow derived stem cells have not been proven to differentiate reproducibly and reliably into cardiomyocytes. Skeletal myoblasts have created in vivo myotubes but have not electrically integrated with the myocardium. Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells represent one of the most promising types of cellular therapy for children with cardiac failure.
A detailed hierarchal nomenclature of arrhythmias is offered with definition of its applications to diagnosis and complications. The conceptual and organizational approach to discussion of arrhythmias employs the following sequence: location – mechanism – aetiology – duration. The classification of arrhythmias is heuristically divided into an anatomical hierarchy: atrial, junctional, ventricular, or atrioventricular. Mechanisms are most simplistically classified as either reentrant, such as macro-reentrant atrial tachycardia, previously described as atrial flutter, or focal, such as automatic or micro-reentrant tachycardia, for example, junctional ectopic tachycardia. The aetiology of arrhythmias can be either iatrogenic, such as postsurgical, or non-iatrogenic, such as genetic or congenital, and in many cases is multi-factorial. Assigning an aetiology to an arrhythmia is distinct from understanding the mechanism of the arrhythmia, yet assignment of a possible aetiology of an arrhythmia may have important therapeutic implications in certain clinical settings. For example, postoperative atrial arrhythmias in patients after cardiac transplantation may be harbingers of rejection or consequent to remediable imbalances of electrolytes. The duration, frequency of, and time to occurrence of arrhythmia are temporal measures that further refine arrhythmia definition, and may offer insight into ascription of aetiology. Finally, arrhythmias do not occur in a void, but interact with other organ systems. Arrhythmias not only can result from perturbations of other organ systems, such as renal failure, but can produce dysfunction in other organ systems due to haemodynamic compromise or embolic phenomena.
Clinicians working in the field of congenital and paediatric cardiology have long felt the need for a common diagnostic and therapeutic nomenclature and coding system with which to classify patients of all ages with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. A cohesive and comprehensive system of nomenclature, suitable for setting a global standard for multicentric analysis of outcomes and stratification of risk, has only recently emerged, namely, The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This review, will give an historical perspective on the development of systems of nomenclature in general, and specifically with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Finally, current and future efforts to merge such systems into the paperless environment of the electronic health or patient record on a global scale are briefly explored.
On October 6, 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. In January, 2005, the International Nomenclature Committee was constituted in Canada as The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. This International Society now has three working groups. The Nomenclature Working Group developed The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code and will continue to maintain, expand, update, and preserve this International Code. It will also provide ready access to the International Code for the global paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery communities, related disciplines, the healthcare industry, and governmental agencies, both electronically and in published form. The Definitions Working Group will write definitions for the terms in the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, building on the previously published definitions from the Nomenclature Working Group. The Archiving Working Group, also known as The Congenital Heart Archiving Research Team, will link images and videos to the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. The images and videos will be acquired from cardiac morphologic specimens and imaging modalities such as echocardiography, angiography, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as intraoperative images and videos.
Efforts are ongoing to expand the usage of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code to other areas of global healthcare. Collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the representatives of the steering group responsible for the creation of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, administered by the World Health Organisation. Similar collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, who are the owners of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine or “SNOMED”.
The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code was created by specialists in the field to name and classify paediatric and congenital cardiac disease and its treatment. It is a comprehensive code that can be freely downloaded from the internet (http://www.IPCCC.net) and is already in use worldwide, particularly for international comparisons of outcomes. The goal of this effort is to create strategies for stratification of risk and to improve healthcare for the individual patient. The collaboration with the World Heath Organization, the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, and the healthcare industry, will lead to further enhancement of the International Code, and to its more universal use.
The diagnosis and treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease has undergone remarkable progress over the last 60 years. Unfortunately, this progress has been largely limited to the developed world. Yet every year approximately 90% of the more than 1,000,000 children who are born with congenital cardiac disease across the world receive either suboptimal care or are totally denied care.
While in the developed world the focus has changed from an effort to decrease post-operative mortality to now improving quality of life and decreasing morbidity, which is the focus of this Supplement, the rest of the world still needs to develop basic access to congenital cardiac care. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery [http://www.wspchs.org/] was established in 2006. The Vision of the World Society is that every child born anywhere in the world with a congenital heart defect should have access to appropriate medical and surgical care. The Mission of the World Society is to promote the highest quality comprehensive care to all patients with pediatric and/or congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient’s economic means, with emphasis on excellence in education, research and community service.
We present in this article an overview of the epidemiology of congenital cardiac disease, the current and future challenges to improve care in the developed and developing world, the impact of the globalization of cardiac surgery, and the role that the World Society should play. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is in a unique position to influence and truly improve the global care of children and adults with congenital cardiac disease throughout the world [http://www.wspchs.org/].
This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis of outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay out some principles which might make it possible to achieve life-long monitoring and follow-up using our databases, and describe the next steps those involved in the care of these patients need to take in order to achieve these objectives. In order to perform meaningful multi-institutional analyses, we suggest that any database must incorporate the following six essential elements: use of a common language and nomenclature, use of an established uniform core dataset for collection of information, incorporation of a mechanism of evaluating case complexity, availability of a mechanism to assure and verify the completeness and accuracy of the data collected, collaboration between medical and surgical subspecialties, and standardised protocols for life-long follow-up.
During the 1990s, both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons created databases to assess the outcomes of congenital cardiac surgery. Beginning in 1998, these two organizations collaborated to create the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project. By 2000, a common nomenclature, along with a common core minimal dataset, were adopted by The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery. In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. By 2005, the Nomenclature Working Group crossmapped the nomenclature of the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project of The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons with the European Paediatric Cardiac Code of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and therefore created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET].
This common nomenclature, the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, and the common minimum database data set created by the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project, are now utilized by both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Between 1998 and 2007 inclusive, this nomenclature and database was used by both of these two organizations to analyze outcomes of over 150,000 operations involving patients undergoing surgical treatment for congenital cardiac disease.
Two major multi-institutional efforts that have attempted to measure the complexity of congenital heart surgery are the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 system, and the Aristotle Complexity Score. Current efforts to unify the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 system and the Aristotle Complexity Score are in their early stages, but encouraging. Collaborative efforts involving The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons are under way to develop mechanisms to verify the completeness and accuracy of the data in the databases. Under the leadership of The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, further collaborative efforts are ongoing between congenital and paediatric cardiac surgeons and other subspecialties, including paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologists, via The Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, paediatric cardiac intensivists, via The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society, and paediatric cardiologists, via the Joint Council on Congenital Heart Disease and The Association for European Paediatric Cardiology.
In finalising our review, we emphasise that analysis of outcomes must move beyond mortality, and encompass longer term follow-up, including cardiac and non cardiac morbidities, and importantly, those morbidities impacting health related quality of life. Methodologies must be implemented in these databases to allow uniform, protocol driven, and meaningful, long term follow-up.
Meaningful evaluation of quality of care must account for variations in the population of patients receiving treatment, or “case-mix”. In adult cardiac surgery, empirical clinical data, initially from tens of thousands, and more recently hundreds of thousands of operations, have been used to develop risk-models, to increase the accuracy with which the outcome of a given procedure on a given patient can be predicted, and to compare outcomes on non-identical patient groups between centres, surgeons and eras.
In the adult cardiac database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, algorithms for risk-adjustment are based on over 1.5 million patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and over 100,000 patients undergoing isolated replacement of the aortic valve or mitral valve. In the pediatric and congenital cardiac database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, 61,014 operations are spread out over greater than 100 types of primary procedures. The problem of evaluating quality of care in the management of pediatric patients with cardiac diseases is very different, and in some ways a great deal more challenging, because of the smaller number of patients and the higher number of types of operations.
In the field of pediatric cardiac surgery, the importance of the quantitation of the complexity of operations centers on the fact that outcomes analysis using raw measurements of mortality, without adjustment for complexity, is inadequate. Case-mix can vary greatly from program to program. Without stratification of complexity, the analysis of outcomes for congenital cardiac surgery will be flawed. Two major multi-institutional efforts have attempted to measure the complexity of pediatric cardiac operations: the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score. Both systems were derived in large part from subjective probability, or expert opinion. Both systems are currently in wide use throughout the world and have been shown to correlate reasonably well with outcome.
Efforts are underway to develop the next generation of these systems. The next generation will be based more on objective data, but will continue to utilize subjective probability where objective data is lacking. A goal, going forward, is to re-evaluate and further refine these tools so that, they can be, to a greater extent, derived from empirical data. During this process, ideally, the mortality elements of both the Aristotle Complexity Score and the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 methodology will eventually unify and become one and the same. This review article examines these two systems of stratification of complexity and reviews the rationale for the development of each system, the current use of each system, the plans for future enhancement of each system, and the potential for unification of these two tools.
This review includes a brief discussion, from the perspective of cardiac surgeons, of the rationale for creation and maintenance of multi-institutional databases of outcomes of congenital heart surgery, together with a history of the evolution of such databases, a description of the current state of the art, and a discussion of areas for improvement and future expansion of the concept. Five fundamental areas are reviewed: nomenclature, mechanism of data collection and storage, mechanisms for the evaluation and comparison of the complexity of operations and stratification of risk, mechanisms to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the data, and mechanisms for expansion of the current capabilities of databases to include comparison and sharing of data between medical subspecialties. This review briefly describes several European and North American initiatives related to databases for pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery the Congenital Database of The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, the Congenital Database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, and the Central Cardiac Audit Database in the United Kingdom. Potential means of approaching the ultimate goal of acquisition of long-term follow-up data, and input of this data over the life of the patient, are also considered.
The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (www.bestpracticeperfusion.org) is a collaborative partnership of societies of perfusionists, professional medical societies, and interested clinicians, whose aim is to promote the continuous improvement of the delivery of care and outcomes for patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. Despite the many advances made throughout the history of cardiopulmonary bypass, significant variation in practice and potential for complication remains. To help address this issue, the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion has joined the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to develop a list of complications in congenital cardiac surgery related to extracorporeal circulation conducted via cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mechanical circulatory support devices, which include ventricular assist devices and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Understanding and defining the complications that may occur related to extracorporeal circulation in congenital patients is requisite for assessing and subsequently improving the care provided to the patients we serve. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and define the myriad of complications directly related to the extracorporeal circulation of congenital patients.
A large body of literature devoted to “patient safety” and error prevention exists and utilizes a nomenclature that can be applied specifically to the field of congenital cardiac disease and aid in the goals of increasing the safety of patients, decreasing medical error, minimizing mortality and morbidity, and evaluating quality of care. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest and document a quality of health care taxonomy and the appropriate application of this nomenclature of “patient safety” to the specialty of congenital cardiac disease, with special emphasis on the following ten terms: morbidity, complication, medical error, adverse event, harm, near miss, iatrogenesis, iatrogenic complication, medical injury, and sentinel event. Each of these terms is commonly utilized in the medical literature without universal agreement on their meaning and relationship. It is our hope that the standardization of the definitions of these terms, as they are applied to the analysis of outcomes of the treatments applied to patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, will facilitate improved methodologies to assess and improve quality of care in our profession.
When designed in 2000, the Aristotle Complexity Score was entirely based on subjective probability. This approach, based on the opinion of experts, was considered a good solution due to the limited amount of data available. In 2008, the next generation of the complexity score will be based on observed data available from over 100,000 congenital cardiac operations currently gathered in the congenital cardiac surgery databases of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.
A mortality score is created based on 70,000 surgeries harvested in the congenital databases of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. It is derived from 118 congenital cardiovascular operations, representing 91% of the operations and including 97% of the patients. This Mortality Index of the new Aristotle Complexity Score could further be stratified into 5 levels with minimal within-group variation and maximal between-group variation, and may contribute to the planned unification of the Aristotle Complexity Score with the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery system.
Similarly, a score quantifying morbidity risk is created. Due to the progress of congenital cardiac surgery, the mortality is today reduced to an average of 4%. No instrument currently exists to measure the quality of care delivered to the survivors representing 96% of the patients. An objective assessment of morbidity was needed. The Morbidity Index, based on 50,000 operations gathered in the congenital databases of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, is derived from 117 congenital cardiovascular operations representing 90% of the operations and including 95% of the patients. This morbidity indicator is calculated on an algorithm based on length of stay in the hospital and time on the ventilator.
The mortality and morbidity indicators will be part of the next generation of the complexity score, which will be named the Aristotle Average Complexity Score. It will be based on the sum of mortality, morbidity, and subjective technical difficulty. The introduction of objective data in assessment of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery is a significant step forward, which should allow a better evaluation of the complexity of the operations performed by a given centre or surgeon.
Objective: Orthotopic heart transplantation is considered a rescue option for children with failing staged palliation or repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We present our strategy for management, and outcomes, for these complex patients. Methods: We transplanted 68 consecutive children, with diagnoses of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 31, cardiomyopathy in 20, and post-operative complex congenital heart disease in 17. Of these patients, 9 (13.2%) were neonates, and 46 (67.6%) were infants. Median age was 118.5 days. Operative technique involves bicaval cannulation and anastamoses with continuous low flow bypass, and either short periods of circulatory arrest or continuous low flow antegrade cerebral perfusion for reconstruction of the aortic arch. Initial reperfusion of the donor heart utilizes glutamate and aspartate substrate enriched white blood cell filtered cardioplegia. Immunosuppressive therapy includes induction (pulse steroids, gamma globulin, and polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin) and initial maintenance (calcineurin inhibitor, an anti-proliferative agent, and a weaning steroid protocol). Of the 31 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, 23 underwent primary transplantation, and 8 underwent rescue transplantation from failing staged palliation in seven, or attempted biventricular repair in one. Of the seven patients who had failing staged palliation, three had undergone only the Norwood Stage 1 operation, 2 had undergone a Norwood Stage 1 operation and a Glenn superior cavopulmonary anastomosis and two had undergone a Norwood Stage 1 operation, a Glenn superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, and a completion Fontan operation. Results: The group undergoing primary transplantation was younger (p equals 0.007), weighed less (p equals 0.003), and waited longer for an appropriate donor heart (p equals 0.021) compared to those requiring rescue transplantation. No significant difference exists between the groups with regards to donor heart ischaemic time or post-transplant length of hospital stay. Thirty day survival (p equals 0.156) and overall survival (p equals 0.053) was better in those having primary transplantation, although these differences were not statistically significant when a p value of less than 0.05 is considered to be significant. In those having primary transplantation, no patients had elevated panel reactive antibody greater than 10%. Half of the 8 requiring rescue transplantation had panel reactive antibody greater than 10%, and this subgroup did especially poorly. Conclusion: Cardiac transplantation can offer children with failing staged palliation their only chance of survival. Transplantation, however, carries a high risk in this subgroup, especially in the setting of elevated panel reactive antibody.
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