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Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
Field research was conducted for 2 yr to evaluate response of corn and rice to simulated drift rates of a commercial premix of imazethapyr plus imazapyr [3:1 (w/w)]. Drift rates of the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix represented 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.3, and 12.5% of the usage rate of 63 g ai/ha (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 7.9 g/ha, respectively). The imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix applied to six-leaf corn at 7.9 g/ha reduced height 11% compared with the nontreated control 7 days after treatment (DAT) but did not affect corn height 14 and 28 DAT. Corn yield was equivalent regardless of imazethapyr plus imazapyr rate and ranged from 10,200 to 11,500 kg/ha. At 28 DAT, rice height was reduced 12% when 7.9 g/ha of the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix was applied early postemergence (EPOST) at two- to three-leaf and 14 and 5% when the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix at 7.9 and 4 g/ha, respectively, was applied late postemergence (LPOST) at panicle differentiation. Reductions in mature rice height of 11 and 6% were observed when the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix was applied LPOST at 7.9 and 4 g/ha, respectively, and a 5% reduction was observed for 7.9 g/ha of the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix applied EPOST. Application of the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix EPOST at 7.9 g/ha delayed heading in only 1 yr, but heading was delayed both years when applied LPOST. Rice yield was reduced 39 and 16% when the imazethapyr plus imazapyr premix was applied LPOST at 7.9 and 4 g/ha, respectively, compared with a 9% yield reduction for 7.9 g/ha applied EPOST.
Cosmogenic 10Be ages on boulders of 54–51 ka (n=4) on a penultimate Cordilleran ice sheet (CIS) drift confirm that Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 (early Wisconsin) glaciation was extensive in parts of Yukon Territory, the first confirmed evidence in the Canadian Cordillera. We name the glaciation inferred from the mapped and dated drift the Gladstone. These results are in apparent contrast to the MIS 6 (Illinoian) age of the penultimate Reid glaciation to the east in central Yukon but are equivalent to exposure ages on MIS 4 drift in Alaska. Contrasting penultimate ice extents in Yukon requires that different source areas of the northern CIS in Yukon responded differently to climatic forcing during glaciations. The variation in glacier extent for different source areas likely relates to variation in precipitation during glaciation, as the northern CIS was a precipitation-limited system. Causes for a variation in precipitation remain unclear but likely involve the style of precipitation delivery over the St. Elias Mountains possibly related to variations in the Aleutian low.
4H-SiC was selectively etched in a Reactive Ion Etch (RIE) system using a nickel mask. The power, pressure, and electrode spacing were varied within a RF generated SF6:O2 (1:2) plasma. Peak etch rates of up to 2600 Aring;/min. were obtained at a pressure of 350 mT, power of 90 W (2 W/cm2), and electrode spacing of 3.180 cm. Etches were all residue-free, although power levels above 60 W (1.36 W/cm2) resulted in the SiC surface being roughened, which limited smooth surface etch capability to 2000 Aring;/min. When comparing electrode spacing from 3.180 cm to 1.270 cm, the 3.180 cm spacing was found to have the highest etch rate at pressures ranging from 250 mT to 500 mT.
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