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Climate change will have a profound effect on vine growing worldwide. Wine quality will also be affected, which will raise economic issues. Possible adaptations may result from changes in plant material, viticultural techniques, and the wine-making process. Relocation of vineyards to cooler areas and increased irrigation are other options, but they may result in potential conflicts for land and water use. Grapes are currently grown in many regions around the world, and growers have adapted their practices to the wide range of climatic conditions that can be found among or inside these areas. This knowledge is precious for identifying potential adaptations to climate change. Because climate change affects all activities linked to wine production (grape growing, wine making, wine economics, and environmental issues), multidisciplinary research is needed to guide growers to continue to produce high-quality wines in an economical and environmentally sustainable way. An example of such an interdisciplinary study is the French LACCAVE (long-term adaptation to climate change in viticulture and enology) project, in which researchers from 23 institutes work together on all issues related to the impact of climate change on wine production. (JEL Classifications: Q1, Q5)
Catherine Esnouf, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Marie Russel, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Nicolas Bricas, Centre de Co-opération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Paris
This chapter focuses on food systems using an innovative dual approach. First of all, by considering them in interaction with energy and chemical systems within ecosystems, it poses the question of resource allocation (land and biomass). Second, a socioeconomic approach then highlights the diversity of these food systems. Different types of systems co-exist and reflect different ways of producing, processing, distributing and consuming food products. The ‘global’ food system is a constantly changing combination of these different types of systems, all of which influence each other.
Thanks to this dual approach to food systems, new research questions have emerged. New analytical frameworks would enable a clearer understanding of the interconnections between food systems within ecosystems, on the one hand, and their diversity and constant recombination on the other.
Referring to the pioneering work of Malassis (1996), Rastoin et al. (2010) defined a food system (FS) as
an interdependent network of stakeholders (companies, financial institutions, public and private organisations) localised in a given geographical area (region, state, multinational region), participating directly or indirectly in the creation of a flow of goods and services geared towards satisfying the food needs of one or more groups of consumers, both locally and outside the area considered.
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