Enzymatic polymorphism was studied in nine enzyme systems of four species of large African
Barbus (B. bynni occidentalis Boulenger, 1911; B. sacrutus Daget, 1963; B. petitjeani Daget 1962; and B. wurtzi Pellegrin, 1908), two species of small African Barbus (B. guineensis Pellegrin, 1913 and B. cadenati Daget, 1962), and two species of European Barbus (B. barbus Linnaeus, 1758 and B. meridionalis). Like European Barbus, the large African Barbus were found to express more than 20 enzymatic loci for these systems (21 to 23), whereas the small African Barbus only expressed 14. This result suggests that large African Barbus are tetraploid like European Barbus and that small African Barbus are diploid like the Asian species. The two groups of African Barbus do not appear to be phylogenetically closer to each other than they are to European Barbus. Consequently, tetraploidi-
zation must have occurred long ago in large African Barbus, and may correspond to the same event responsible for the origin of the European species.