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To assess whether infection control indicators are associated with the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in French hospitals.
We linked the database for the 2006 national prevalence survey of nosocomial infection with the database of infection control indicators (comprised of ICALIN, an indicator of infection control organization, resources, and action, and ICSHA, an indicator of alcohol-based handrub consumption) recorded from hospitals by the Ministry of Health. Data on MRSA infection were obtained from the national prevalence survey database and included the site and origin of infection, the microorganism responsible, and its drug resistance profile. Because the prevalence of MRSA infection was low and often nil, especially in small hospitals, we restricted our analysis to hospitals with at least 300 Patients. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient-level variables (eg, age, sex, or infection) and hospital-level variables (infection control indicators).
Two hundred two hospitals had at least 300 patients, for a total of 128,631 Patients. The overall prevalence of MRSA infection was 0.34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29%-0.39%). The mean value for ICSHA was 7.8 L per 1,000 patient-days (median, 6.1 L per 1,000 patient-days; range, 0-33 L per 1,000 patient-days). The mean value for ICALIN was 92 of a possible 100 points (median, 94.5;range, 67-100). Multilevel analyses showed that ICALIN scores were associated with the prevalence of MRSA infection (odds ratio for a score change of 1 standard deviation, 0.80;95% CI, 0.69-0.93). We found no association between prevalence of MRSA infection and ICSHA. Other variables significantly associated with the prevalence of MRSA infection were sex, vascular or urinary catheter, previous surgery, and the McCabe score.
We found a significant association between the prevalence of MRSA infection and ICALIN that suggested that a higher ICALIN score may be predictive of a lower prevalence of MRSA infection.
To describe the French program for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic resistance and provide results for some of the indicators available to evaluate the program. In addition to structures and process indicators, the 2 outcome indicators selected were the rate of surgical site infection and the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among the S. aureus isolates recovered.
Descriptive study of the evolution of the national structures for control of healthcare-associated infections since 1992. Through national surveillance networks, process indicators were available from 1993 to 2006, surgical site infection rates were available from 1999 to 2005, and prevalence rates for MRSA infection were available from 2001 to 2007.
A comprehensive national program has gradually been set up in France during the period from 1993 to 2004, which included strengthening of organized infection control activities at the local, regional, and national levels and developing large networks for surveillance of specific infections and antibiotic resistance. These achievements were complemented by instituting mandatory notification for unusual nosocomial events, especially outbreaks. The second phase of the program involved the implementation of 5 national quality indicators with public reporting. Surgical site infection rates decreased by 25% over a 6-year period. In France, the median proportion of MRSA among S. aureus isolates recovered from patients with bacteremia decreased from 33.4% to 25.7% during the period from 2001 to 2007, whereas this proportion increased in many other European countries.
Very few national programs have been evaluated since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. Although continuing efforts are required, the French program appears to have been effective at reducing infection rates.
We investigated the source of infection in a patient who developed acute hepatitis C virus infection after cardiothoracic surgery. A healthcare worker was found to be infected with hepatitis C virus, and molecular analysis indicated the strain was similar to that found in the patient. The exact mode of transmission was not identified; however, atopic eczema on the healthcare worker's hands may have contributed to the transmission.
To identify modes of HCV transmission during an outbreak of HCV infection in a hemodialysis unit.
An epidemiologic study, virologie analysis, assessment of infection control practices and procedures, and technical examination of products and dialysis machines.
A private hemodialysis unit treating approximately 70 patients.
Detection of HCV RNA by PCR was performed among patients receiving dialysis in 2001. Case-patients were patients who had a first positive result for HCV RNA between January 2001 and January 2002 and either acute hepatitis, a seroconversion for HCV antibodies, or a previous negative result. Three control-patients were randomly selected per case-patient.
Of the 61 patients treated in the unit in 2001 and not infected with HCV, 22 (36.1%) became case-patients with onset from May 2001 to January 2002 for an incidence density rate of 70 per 100 patient-years. Phylogenic analysis identified four distinct HCV groups and an index case-patient for each with a similar virus among patients already known to be infected. No multidose medication vials or material was shared between patients. Connection to a dialysis machine by a nurse who had connected an HCV-infected patient “just before” or “one patient before” increased the risk of HCV infection, whereas using the same dialysis machine after a patient infected with HCV did not. Understating, lack of training, and breaches in infection control were documented. Direct observation of practices revealed frequent flooding of blood into the double filter on the arterial pressure tubing set.
During this outbreak, HCV transmission was mainly patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. However, transmission via dialysis machines because of possible contamination of internal components could not be excluded.
To identify the routes of transmission during an outbreak of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a/2c in a hemodialysis unit.
A matched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for HCV seroconversion. Direct observation and staff interviews were conducted to assess infection control practices. Molecular methods were used in a comparison of HCV infecting isolates from the case-patients and from patients infected with the 2a/2c genotype before admission to the unit.
A hemodialysis unit treating an average of 90 patients.
A case-patient was defined as a patient receiving hemodialysis with a seroconversion for HCV genotype 2a/2c between January 1994 and July 1997 who had received dialysis in the unit during the 3 months before the onset of disease. For each case-patient, 3 control-patients were randomly selected among all susceptible patients treated in the unit during the presumed contamination period of the case-patient.
HCV seroconversion was associated with the number of hemodialysis sessions undergone on a machine shared with (odds ratio [OR] per additional session, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.9 to 1.8) or in the same room as (OR per additional session, 1.1; CI95, 1.0 to 1.2) a patient who was anti-HCV (genotype 2a/2c) positive. We observed several breaches in infection control procedures. Wetting of transducer protectors in the external pressure tubing sets with patient blood reflux was observed, leading to a potential contamination by blood of the pressure-sensing port of the machine, which is not accessible to routine disinfection. The molecular analysis of HCV infecting isolates identified among the case-patients revealed two groups of identical isolates similar to those of two patients infected before admission to the unit.
The results suggest patient-to-patient transmission of HCV by breaches in infection control practices and possible contamination of the machine. No additional cases have occurred since the reinforcement of infection control procedures and the use of a second transducer protector.
To identify the routes of transmission in a nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Epidemiological investigation, including screening for HCV of hospitalized patients, and a retrospective cohort study, review of hygiene and medical practices, and molecular comparison of HCV isolates.
A specialized care unit for cystic fibrosis (CF) and diabetic patients at an acute-care facility in the south of France.
Of the 57 CF patients (age in 1995: 2-28 years), 38 (66.7%) were tested and 22 (57.9%) were anti-HCV positive. Eight (50%) of 16 patients with anti-HCV antibody tested by polymerase chain reaction were viremic. No patients had received blood products or had any history of intravenous drug use. All 18 (100%) patients with CF who had ever undergone self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose in the unit were anti-HCV positive, compared to 4 (20%) of 20 who had not (relative risk, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-12.0). Seventy (39.5%) of the patients with diabetes were screened for anti-HCV; 12 (18.8%) tested positive, with 3 (25%) positive for HCV-RNA. Patients with diabetes had routine capillary blood glucose monitoring while hospitalized and shared with CF patients the same spring-triggered devices for capillary blood glucose monitoring. The disposable platform of the devices was not changed between patient use. All HCV isolates belonged to the type 1, subtype b, and phylogenetic analysis showed a close homology by sequencing of NS5b and E2/HVR regions.
As reported earlier for the hepatitis B virus, shared spring-triggered devices for capillary blood glucose monitoring by finger puncture may transmit HCV. Strict application of Standard Precautions procedures is warranted in any healthcare setting.
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