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During a 10 year interval, between January 1, 1981 and January 1, 1991, primary repair of atrioventricular septal defect with a common atrioventricular orifice was performed in 95 patients younger than 1 year. Patients with atrioventricular septal defect having two atrioventricular orifices and a small ventricular septal defect, and those with severe hypoplasia of the left ventricle, were not included in the present study. According to the presence of associated anomalies, patients were divided into those with simple forms (72%) and those with complex forms (28%). These included parachute deformity of the left atrioventricular valve (10 cases), multiple muscular ventricular septal defects (5 cases), low-lying infundibular stenosis of the right ventricle (4 cases), obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract (3 cases), tetralogy ofFallot (2 cases) and hypoplasia of the left ventricle (2 cases).
As interest increase in the Ross procedure performed as a therapeutic option for children with congenital aortic valvar stenosis, it becomes increasinly important to know the late results of aortic valvotomy in this population. We have therefore examined retrospectively the medical records of 121 consecutives survivors undergoing aortic valvotomy before 10 years of age between 1974 and 1992. The mean age at the first valvotomy was 29 months, with a range from 3 days to 10 years. The mean duration of follow up was 9.4 years, with a range from 1.6 to 22 years. Fifteen patients (12.3%; 70% CL: 10–16) died: 9 following reoperation, and 6 late after surgery. Death was related to the hearts in 86% of cases. The actuarial survival rate was 79% (70% CL: 72/84) at 10 years. Young age at the first valvotomy, and the number of procedures, emerged as risk factors of secondary mortality. Reoperations on the aortic valve, 73 in all, were required in 56 patients. The second procedure was done after a mean interval of 6 years, with a rangefrom 1 day to 18 years. This was for restenosis in three-quarters of the cases. The aortic valve was replaced in 30 patients, at a mean of 9 years, and with a range from 9 months to 18 years, after the first procedure. The survival without replacement at 20 years was 29% (70% CL: 15–49). No factor was identified with a relationship either to reoperation or valvar replacement. Long term results after aortic valvotomy, therefore, show a high late mortality, frequent reinterventions, and an almost inescapable eventual need for valvar replacement. The ongoing use of the Ross operation is justified, even if longterm studies in children are still needed to validate its use.
We report the multicentric French experience with transcatheter closure in children weighing 15 kilograms or less, with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the procedure in this age group.
We included all children weighing 15 kilograms or less, and seen between January, 1997, and June, 2004, who had successful transcatheter closure of an interatrial communication within the oval fossa.
Transcatheter closure was performed in 35 patients weighing 15 kilograms or less, of whom 14 were male and 21 female. The procedures were undertaken in 8 different centres, the patients having a median age of 3 years, with a range from zero to 6.2 years, and a mean weight of 13 kilograms, with a range from 3.6 to 15 kilograms. All the patients were symptomatic, with associated cardiac malformations present in 4 cases, and extracardiac anomalies in 4 patients, including Down’s syndrome in 3, and Adams Oliver syndrome in the other case. In 1 patient, emergency cardiac surgery was needed 24 h after the procedure to correct a previously undiagnosed divided right atrium. No other complication occurred. After a median follow-up of 2 years, with a range from 0.5 to 5.2 years, all the patients are asymptomatic, except for one long-standing patient with bronchodysplasia. In 1 other patient, a small residual bidirectional shunt was detected by echocardiography. No patient presented significant arrhythmia. In the patients followed-up for more than 12 months, we found a significant gain in weight gain.
Transcatheter closure of an interatrial communication within the oval fossa is efficient in children weighing 15 kilograms or less, and can be proposed as a first line of treatment in symptomatic patients. Children with retarded growth tend to have complete recovery within one year of closure.
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