To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report experience with 11 patients misdiagnosed for years, on the basis of computed tomography (CT) and angiography, as harbouring brainstem tumours in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cavernous angiomas. Seven had undergone external irradiation, 2 had a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, 2 developed aseptic femur necrosis following corticosteroid treatment, 1 had undergone a biopsy with a pathological diagnosis of glioma. CT had depicted ill-defined, hyperdense, faintly enhancing lesions. Angiography was normal, or showed an avascular mass or subtle venous pooling. MRI delineated discrete lesions, typical of cavernous angiomas, with a mixed hyperintense, reticulated, central core surrounded by a hypointense rim. Six patients subsequently underwent stereotactic radiosurgery without changes in clinical status or lesion. Although hemorrhagic neoplasms may mimic the clinical course and MRI appearance of cavernous angiomas, MRI is useful in the diagnosis of brainstem cavernous angiomas and should be performed in patients with suspected brainstem tumours.
Lactococcus lactis is a commonly used starter strain that can be converted from a vitamin B2 consumer into a vitamin B2 ‘factory’ by over-expressing its riboflavin biosynthesis genes. The present study was conducted to assess in a rat bioassay the response of riboflavin produced by GM or native lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The riboflavin-producing strains were able to eliminate most physiological manifestations of ariboflavinosis such as stunted growth, elevated erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient values and hepatomegalia that were observed using a riboflavin depletion–repletion model. Riboflavin status and growth rates were greatly improved when the depleted rats were fed with cultures of L. lactis that overproduced this vitamin whereas the native strain did not show the same effect. The present study is the first animal trial with food containing living bacteria that were engineered to overproduce riboflavin. These results pave the way for analysing the effect of similar riboflavin-overproducing LAB in human trials.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.