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Transplantation of organs represents the pinnacle of medical achievement in so many different ways. This chapter presents historical perspectives of organ transplantation such as abdominal organ transplantation, cardiothoracic transplantation, combined heart and lung transplantation and lung transplantation. The area of skin grafting became of greater importance for the treatment of war burns and other injuries, and the death from kidney disease also provided impetus to focus once more on kidney transplantation. The successful intrathoracic transplantation of the heart without interrupting the circulation led to the idea that a cardiac allograft might be able to assume some of the normal circulatory load. The indications for transplantation are widening, and although kidney, liver, heart, and even lung transplantation is now seen as routine, the necessary skills are being developed to transplant other organs, such as the small intestine, pancreas, face, hand, and uterus.