The enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) links the folate cycle that produces one-carbon units with the methionine cycle that converts these into S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the universal methyl donor for almost all methyltransferases. Previously, MTHFR has been shown to be regulated by phosphorylation, which suppresses its activity. SAM levels have been shown to increase substantially soon after initiation of meiotic maturation of the mouse germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocyte and then decrease back to their original low level in mature second meiotic metaphase (MII) eggs. As MTHFR controls the entry of one-carbon units into the methionine cycle, it is a candidate regulator of the SAM levels in oocytes and eggs. Mthfr transcripts are expressed in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos and MTHFR protein is present at each stage. In mature MII eggs, the apparent molecular weight of MTHFR was increased compared with GV oocytes, which we hypothesized was due to increased phosphorylation. The increase in apparent molecular weight was reversed by treatment with lambda protein phosphatase (LPP), indicating that MTHFR is phosphorylated in MII eggs. In contrast, LPP had no effect on MTHFR from GV oocytes, 2-cell embryos, or blastocysts. MTHFR was progressively phosphorylated after initiation of meiotic maturation, reaching maximal levels in MII eggs before decreasing again after egg activation. As phosphorylation suppresses MTHFR activity, it is predicted that MTHFR becomes inactive during meiotic maturation and is minimally active in MII eggs, which is consistent with the reported changes in SAM levels during mouse oocyte maturation.