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A Cambrian immigration event of paradoxidid trilobites has traditionally marked some regional lower–middle Cambrian boundaries in the Acado-Baltic subprovince (including Baltica and the Mediterranean and Avalonian margins of West Gondwana). The earliest paradoxidine species in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula have been used as a chronostratigraphic link to support the definition of a common base for the Cambrian Series 3, but recent studies have proposed new species without revising previously established ones. This paper offers a morphological statistical analysis based on both linear measurement and landmark-based geometric morphometric approaches performed on the earliest paradoxinine trilobites sampled in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and the Iberian Chains (Spain). As a result, the diagnosis of Acadoparadoxides mureroensis is emended and several species recently erected in Morocco (A. cf. mureroensis, A. levisettii, A. ovatopyge and A. pampalius) are suggested as synonyms of A. mureroensis until 3D statistical analyses are available based on material preserved on carbonate or silica nodules. The first appearance of A. mureroensis in both areas can be provisionally used for regional correlation until homotaxic tests are checked.
In the carbonate-siliciclastic strata of West Gondwana (e.g. in the Montagne Noire, France), the aftermath of the mid Languedocian (mid Cambrian) regression is characterized by a late Languedocian major turnover of trilobite families and a Furongian–early Tremadocian radiation related to the stepwise immigration of trilobite invaders from East Gondwana under persistent transgressive conditions. The scarcity of upper Languedocian fossil accumulations in clayey substrates has inspired the sampling of the palaeogeographically most distal parts of the Iberian Chains (Spain), where diagenetic dissolution of ubiquitous hexactinellid sponge spicules has favoured the formation of siliceous concretions. These have yielded the trilobites Peronopsis cf. insignis, Oidalagnostus trispinifer, Proampyx difformis (= Proampyx aculeatus), Bailiaspis? glabrata (= Holocephalina agrauloides, by ontogeny), Holasaphus cf. centropyge and a paradoxidid gen. et sp. indet. Despite preservation and sampling biases, the identification of this taphonomic window in offshore clayey substrates of West Gondwana allows the recognition of a strong biogeographical link with Baltica, and the correlation of the global Guzhangian Stage and the Solenopleura? brachymetopa Zone of Scandinavia with part of the Mediterranean upper Languedocian Substage.
The benefit obtained by a selfish robot by cheating in a real multirobotic system can be represented by the random variable Xn,q: the number of cheating interactions needed before all the members in a cooperative team of robots, playing a TIT FOR TAT strategy, recognize the selfish robot. Stability of cooperation depends on the ratio between the benefit obtained by selfish and cooperative robots. In this paper, we establish the probability model for Xn,q. If the values of the parameters n and q are known, then this model allows us to make predictions about the stability of cooperation. Moreover, if these parameters are modifiable, it is possible to tune them to guarantee the viability of cooperation.
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