Introduction: Tobacco use and its harm continue to increase in low and middle income countries (LMICs) globally. Smoking cessation is the most effective means of reducing morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Increasing the prevalence of ex-users is an indicator of population cessation.
Aims: This study provides the first examination of factors associated with ex-tobacco use status in the Dominican Republic (DR), a LMIC in the Latin America and Caribbean region.
Methods: Baseline surveillance was conducted for 1,177 randomly selected households in seven economically disadvantaged DR communities (total N = 2,680 adult household members).
Results: Ex-user prevalence was 10.6% (1.0%–18.5% across communities), 14.8% were current users (9.1–20.4), and quit ratios were 41.7% (9.7%–52.7%). Among ever users, females (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.41, 2.90), older adults (45–64: OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12, 2.74; 65+: OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.29, 3.39), and those who could read/write (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.08, 2.50), had health conditions (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.11, 2.41), and lived with ex-users (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.12, 2.58) were over 60% to two times as likely to be ex-users. Those from remote communities (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36, 0.74), using chewed tobacco (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04, 0.48) and living with tobacco users (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37, 0.81) were less likely to be ex-users.
Conclusions: Ex-user prevalence and quit ratios were lower than for high income countries. Implementing broad tobacco control measures, combined with clinically targeting vulnerable groups, may increase tobacco cessation to most effectively reduce this public health crisis.