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IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a rare and often misdiagnosed disorder with limited literature that highlights the different neurological presentations of this treatable disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD could be challenging, while imaging is fundamental for the diagnosis, biopsy is considered the gold standard. Most cases respond well to steroids and immunosuppressive therapy. This is a case series study that illustrates the varied neurological presentations of IgG4-RD through three different patients that were followed at the Montreal Neurological Institute. This paper takes you through the diagnostic strategy that we followed to accurately diagnose and treat those patients.
Background: Radiotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine improves overall survival (OS) in patients with 1p19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Methods: This retrospective analysis investigated outcomes in patients with 1p19q co-deleted/partially deleted oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 106 patients (between December 1997 and December 2013) were included. Median age was 40 years (19-66), 58 were male (55%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 80 patients (75%). 1p19q status was co-deleted in 66 (62%), incompletely co-deleted in 27 (25%), and 1p or 19q loss alone in four (4%) and nine (8%) patients, respectively. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 R132H mutation was found in 67 of 85 patients with sufficient material. Upfront treatment was given in 72 (68%) patients and temozolomide alone in 52 (49%). Median time to radiotherapy in 47 patients (44%) was 34.7 months and 41.2 months in 9 patients with co-deleted/incompletely co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma who received upfront temozolomide alone. Median OS was not reached and 5-year OS was 91% for all groups (median follow-up, 5.1 years). On multivariable analysis for all patients, receipt of therapy upfront versus none (p=0.04), PS 1 versus 0 (p<0.001) and 1p19q co-deletion/incomplete deletion versus 1p or 19q loss alone (p=0.005) were prognostic for PFS. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 status was not prognostic for PFS. Conclusions: With similar survival patterns in low-grade/anaplastic gliomas, molecular characteristics may be more important than histological grade. Longer follow-up and results of prospective trials are needed for definitive guidance on treatment of these patients.