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The mitotic-inhibiting herbicide pronamide controls susceptible annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) pre- and postemergence, but in some resistant populations, postemergence activity is compromised, hypothetically due to a target-site mutation, lack of root uptake, or an unknown resistance mechanism. Three suspected pronamide-resistant (LH-R, SC-R, and SL-R) and two pronamide-susceptible (BS-S and HH-S) populations were collected from Mississippi golf courses. Dose–response experiments were conducted to confirm and quantify pronamide resistance, as well as resistance to flazasulfuron and simazine. Target sites known to confer resistance to mitotic-inhibiting herbicides were sequenced, as were target sites for herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) and photosystem II (PSII). Pronamide absorption and translocation were investigated following foliar and soil applications. Dose–response experiments confirmed pronamide resistance of LH-R, SC-R, and SL-R populations, as well as instances of multiple resistance to ALS- and PSII-inhibiting herbicides. Sequencing of the α-tubulin gene confirmed the presence of a mutation that substituted isoleucine for threonine at position 239 (Thr-239-Ile) in LH-R, SC-R, SL-R, and BS-S populations. Foliar application experiments failed to identify differences in pronamide absorption and translocation between the five populations, regardless of harvest time. All populations had limited basipetal translocation—only 3% to 13% of the absorbed pronamide—across harvest times. Soil application experiments revealed that pronamide translocation was similar between SC-R, SL-R, and both susceptible populations across harvest times. The LH-R population translocated less soil-applied pronamide than susceptible populations at 24, 72, and 168 h after treatment, suggesting that reduced acropetal translocation may contribute to pronamide resistance. This study reports three new pronamide-resistant populations, two of which are resistant to two modes of action (MOAs), and one of which is resistant to three MOAs. Results suggest that both target site– and translocation-based mechanisms may be associated with pronamide resistance. Further research is needed to confirm the link between pronamide resistance and the Thr-239-Ile mutation of the α-tubulin gene.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
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