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The use of different herbicide-resistant soybean technologies in proximity could lead to injury and yield loss due to an application error. Research was initiated to evaluate the effect of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 100% doses of isoxaflutole and mesotrione field use doses applied postemergence to 4-hyroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPD) inhibitor-susceptible soybean, representing physical drift or misapplication doses. Visible injury manifested as chlorosis with slight necrosis, progressing to necrosis and height reduction, with visible height reduction as the only symptom. Isoxaflutole at 6.25% and 12.5% injured V2 soybean more than V1 or V4 soybean at all evaluation dates. This is supported by soybean height data at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Following the 100% dose, maximum injury occurred at 28 DAT with V1, V2, and V4 soybean injured 90%, 85%, and 72%, but injury declined over time. All isoxaflutole treatments reduced yield at least 310 kg ha−1, with no differences among application timings or between the two lowest doses for a revenue loss of US$147 ha−1 to US$623 ha−1. Visible injury following mesotrione manifested as chlorosis and necrosis advancing to visible height reduction. Following mesotrione at 6.25% and 12.5%, injury ranged from 20% to 36% among application timings and did not differ at 3 to 21 DAT. Soybean heights at 28 and 42 DAT do not support injury observations; therefore, the greater injury was due to chlorosis and necrosis. Following mesotrione at 100%, sensitivity decreased at 3 to 14 DAT when applied to later growth stages, with no differences at 42 DAT. Yields did not differ among application timings, but yield losses were at least 240 kg ha−1, with revenue losses of US$60 ha−1 and US$373 ha−1. Producers are cautioned to prevent off-target movement or errant application of isoxaflutole or mesotrione to HPPD inhibitor-susceptible soybean.
Crop residue can intercept and adsorb residual herbicides, leading to reduced efficacy. However, adsorption can sometimes be reversed by rainfall or irrigation. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of differential overhead irrigation level on barnyardgrass response to acetochlor, pyroxasulfone, and pendimethalin applied to bare soil or wheat straw–covered soil. Acetochlor applied to wheat straw–covered soil resulted in 25% to 40% reduced control, 30 to 50 more plants 213 cm−2, and greater biomass than bare soil applications, regardless of irrigation amount. Barnyardgrass suppression by pyroxasulfone applications to wheat straw–covered soil improved with increased irrigation; however, weed control levels similar to bare soil applications were not observed after any irrigation amount. Barnyardgrass densities from pyroxasulfone applications to bare soil decreased with irrigation but did not change in applications to wheat straw–covered soil. Aboveground barnyardgrass biomass from pyroxasulfone decreased with greater irrigation amounts in both bare soil and wheat straw–covered soil applications; however, decreased efficacy in wheat straw–covered soil applications was not alleviated with irrigation. Pendimethalin was the only herbicide tested that displayed reduced efficacy when irrigation amounts increased in applications to both bare soil and wheat straw–covered soil. Barnyardgrass control from pendimethalin applied to wheat straw–covered soil was similar to bare soil applications when approximately 0.3 to 1.2 cm of irrigation was applied; however, irrigation amounts greater than 1.2 cm resulted in greater barnyardgrass control in bare soil applications. No differences between wheat straw–covered soil and bare soil applications of pendimethalin were observed for barnyardgrass densities. These data indicate that increased irrigation or rainfall level can increase efficacy of acetochlor and pyroxasulfone. Optimal rainfall or irrigation amounts required for efficacy similar to bare soil applications are herbicide specific, and some herbicides, such as pendimethalin, may be adversely affected by increased rainfall or irrigation.
A field study was conducted twice in Elizabeth, MS, at on-farm sites in 2010–11 and 2011–12, and twice in 2012–13 at Mississippi State University’s Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass control and crop response to fall treatments followed by postemergence herbicide treatments in winter and/or spring. Italian ryegrass was controlled ≥92% and 61% following S-metolachlor and tillage 77 d after fall treatments (DA-FT), respectively. S-metolachlor fall treatment provided 33% greater control than clethodim winter treatment at 21 d after winter treatments (DA-WT). Tillage fall treatment followed by (fb) clethodim winter treatment fb paraquat spring treatment provided similar control (93%) to treatments containing S-metolachlor fall treatment fb a winter or spring herbicide treatment (≥93%) 24 d after spring treatments (DA-ST). Greatest soybean and corn density and yield were also observed following programs containing S-metolachlor fall treatment. Sequential postemergence herbicide treatments were not required to increase corn and soybean density and yield when S-metolachlor was used as a fall treatment. Growers have the best opportunity to maximize GR Italian ryegrass control when S-metolachlor fb a winter or spring herbicide treatment is used.
Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
In Mississippi, rice reproduction and ripening often overlaps with soybean maturation, creating potential for herbicide exposure onto rice from desiccants applied to soybeans. Six independent studies were conducted concurrently at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, from 2016 to 2018 to determine the response of rice to sublethal concentrations of soybean desiccants during rice reproductive and ripening growth stages. Studies included the desiccants paraquat, glyphosate, saflufenacil, sodium chlorate, paraquat + saflufenacil, and paraquat + sodium chlorate applied at a rate equal to 1/10th of Mississippi recommendations. Treatments were applied at five different rice growth stages, beginning at 50% heading––defined as 0 d after heading (DAH)––with subsequent applications at 1-wk intervals (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 DAH), up to harvest. Injury was observed 7 d after application (DAA), with five of six desiccants at all application timings. No injury was observed with glyphosate application across all rating intervals. Rough rice grain yield following all glyphosate applications was reduced by >6%. In the studies evaluating paraquat, injury ranged from 5% to 18% at all evaluations, regardless of application timing. Rough rice grain yield was reduced >12% 0 to 21 DAH, following paraquat application. Similar trends were observed with paraquat + saflufenacil and paraquat + sodium chlorate, with rice exhibiting yield decreases >6% following an application 0 to 14 and 0 to 21 DAH, respectively. In studies evaluating saflufenacil and sodium chlorate, rough rice grain yield was >95% of the untreated across all application timings Yield component trends closely resembled reductions observed in rough rice grain yield. Reductions in head rice yield were >5% following applications of paraquat or paraquat + saflufenacil 0 to 14 and 0 to 21 DAH, respectively. Late-season exposure to sublethal concentrations of desiccant from 50% heading (0 DAH) to 28 DAH has an impact on rough rice grain yield, yield components, and head rice yield.
The application of paraquat mixtures with residual herbicides before planting rice is a common treatment in Mississippi, and rice in proximity is susceptible to off-target movement of these applications. Four concurrent studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice performance following exposure to a sublethal rate of paraquat, metribuzin, fomesafen, and cloransulam-methyl at different application timings. Herbicides were applied to rice at the growth stages of spiking to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), three- to four-leaf (MPOST), 7 d postflood (PFLD), and panicle differentiation (PD). Regardless of application timing, rice injury following exposure to paraquat was ≥45%. Delays in maturity were increased by 0.3 d d−1 following paraquat from emergence through PD. Dry weight, rough rice yield, panicle density, and germination were reduced by 18.7 g, 131.5 kg ha−1, 5.6 m−2, and 0.3%, respectively, per day from application of paraquat at emergence through PD. By 28 d after treatment (DAT), metribuzin injured rice 3% to 6%, and that injury did not translate into a yield reduction. Regardless of application timing, rice injury following fomesafen application ranged from 2% to 5% 28 DAT. Rice exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST exhibited the greatest root and foliar injury 21 DAT and 28 DAT, respectively. Additionally, when rice was exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST, yield was reduced to 6,540 kg ha−1 compared with a yield of 7,850 kg ha−1 from nontreated rice. Rice yield was negatively affected after paraquat was applied any time after rice emergence. However, applications of paraquat to rice at early reproductive growth stages reduced rough rice yield and seed germination the greatest. Application timing is crucial in determining severity of rice injury. Early-season injury to rice following paraquat application had less effect on yield compared with injury at later stages. Additionally, fields devoted to seed rice production are at risk for reduced seed germination if they are exposed to paraquat during early reproductive growth stages.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
Information on performance of sequential treatments of quizalofop-P-ethyl with florpyrauxifen-benzyl on rice is lacking. Field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate sequential timings of quizalofop-P-ethyl with florpyrauxifen-benzyl included in preflood treatments of rice. Quizalofop-P-ethyl treatments were no quizalofop-P-ethyl; sequential applications of quizalofop-P-ethyl at 120 g ha−1 followed by (fb) 120 g ai ha−1 applied to rice in the 2- to 3-leaf (EPOST) fb the 4-leaf to 1-tiller (LPOST) growth stages or LPOST fb 10 d after flooding (PTFLD); quizalofop-P-ethyl at 100 g ha−1 fb 139 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST or LPOST fb PTFLD; quizalofop-P-ethyl at 139 g ha−1 fb 100 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST and LPOST fb PTFLD; and quizalofop-P-ethyl at 85 g ha−1 fb 77 g ha−1 fb 77 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST fb PTFLD. Quizalofop-P-ethyl was applied alone and in mixture with florpyrauxifen-benzyl at 29 g ai ha−1 LPOST. Visible rice injury 14 d after PTFLD (DA-PTFLD) was no more than 3%. Visible control of volunteer rice (‘CL151’ and ‘Rex’) 7 DA-PTFLD was similar and at least 95% for each quizalofop-P-ethyl treatment. Barnyardgrass control with quizalofop-P-ethyl at 120 fb 120 g ha−1 LPOST fb PTFLD was greater (88%) in mixture with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. The addition of florpyrauxifen-benzyl to quizalofop-P-ethyl increased rough rice yield when quizalofop-P-ethyl was applied at 100 g ha−1 fb 139 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST. Sequential applications of quizalofop-P-ethyl at 120 g ha−1 fb 120 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST, 100 g ha−1 fb 139 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST, or 139 g ha−1 fb 100 g ha−1 EPOST fb LPOST controlled grass weed species. The addition of florpyrauxifen-benzyl was not beneficial for grass weed control. However, because quizalofop-P-ethyl does not control broadleaf weeds, florpyrauxifen-benzyl could provide broad-spectrum weed control in acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase–resistant rice.
Differential tolerance may be observed among rice cultivars with desiccant exposure events during rice reproduction and ripening. Five field studies were established at the Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of common desiccants across multiple rice cultivars. Rice cultivars in the study were ‘CLXL745’, ‘XL753’, ‘CL163’, ‘Rex’, and ‘Jupiter’. Desiccant treatments included no desiccant, paraquat, or glyphosate and were applied at the 50% heading growth stage respective to cultivar. Differential injury estimates among cultivars and desiccant treatments was observed when glyphosate or paraquat was applied at 50% heading. Injury from glyphosate at 50% heading was nondetectable across all cultivars. However, injury following paraquat applications was >7% across all rating intervals and cultivars. Hybrid cultivars exhibited less injury with paraquat applications than the inbred cultivars in the study. Rice following exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 50% heading growth stage produced rough rice grain yield decreases ranging from 0% to 20% and 9% to 21%, respectively. Rough rice grain yield decreases were observed across all cultivars following paraquat exposure, and all inbred cultivars following glyphosate exposure. Across desiccant treatment, head rice yield was reduced in three of five cultivars in the study. When pooled across cultivar, paraquat applications cause a head rice yield reduction of 10%, whereas rice yield following glyphosate application remained >95%. Although differential tolerance among cultivars to paraquat or glyphosate exposure was observed, impacts on grain quality coupled with yield reductions suggests extreme rice sensitivity to exposure to sublethal concentrations of these desiccants at the 50% heading growth stage.
Florpyrauxifen-benzyl and quizalofop were available for POST applications in 2018; however, little is known about the response of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)–resistant rice cultivars and advanced lines to POST herbicides. A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Stoneville, MS, to characterize the response of ACCase-resistant rice cultivars and advanced lines to POST applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. The imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice cultivars ‘CL163’ and ‘CLXL 745’, and ACCase-resistant rice cultivars ‘PVL01’, ‘PVL013’, ‘PVL024-B’, ‘PVL038’, ‘PVL080’, and ‘PVL081’were treated with florpyrauxifen-benzyl at 0 (nontreated control for each cultivar) and 58 g ai ha–1 at the four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) growth stage. At 14 d after treatment (DAT), PVL01 was injured 5% to 6% greater than CLXL 745, PVL013, and PVL081; however, injury was ≤10% at that evaluation for all cultivars. Similarly, injury was ≤13% for all cultivars 28 DAT. Mature heights were reduced for all cultivars except PVL013 and PVL081. Rough rice yield was ≥100% of the control for all cultivars except PVL081, PVL013, and CL163. Results suggest that florpyrauxifen-benzyl can safely be applied POST to rice cultivars grown in Mississippi as well as ACCase-resistant cultivars that are currently under development.
Off-target paraquat movement to rice has become a major problem in recent years for rice producers in the midsouthern United States. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is applied to rice in greater quantity and frequency than all other nutrients to optimize rice yield. Two separate field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Stoneville, MS, to assess whether starter N fertilizer can aid rice recovery from exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat and to evaluate rice response to different N fertilizer management strategies following exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, paraquat treatments consisted of paraquat at 0 and 84 g ai ha–1 applied to rice in the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) growth stage. In the starter fertilizer study, N fertilizer at 24 kg ha–1 as ammonium sulfate (AMS) was applied to rice at spiking- to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), or three- to four-leaf (MPOST) growth stages before and after paraquat treatment. In the N fertilizer timing study, N fertilizer at 168 kg N ha–1 was applied in a single four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) application or two-, three-, and two four-way split applications. Despite starter N fertilizer applications, paraquat injured rice ≥41%, reduced height 57%, reduced dry weight prior to flooding 77%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 33%, and reduced rough rice yield 35% in the starter fertilizer study. Similarly, in the N fertilizer timing study, paraquat injured rice ≥45%, reduced height 14%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 44%, and reduced rough rice yield 50% for all N fertilizer management strategies. Both studies indicate that severe complications in growth and development can occur from rice exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, manipulation of N fertilizer management did not facilitate rice recovery from early-season exposure to paraquat.
In glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems, paraquat applied in mixtures with residual herbicides prior to crop emergence offers an alternative herbicide mode of action (MOA) to aid in GR weed management. Rice is sensitive to off-target herbicide movement; however, severity of injury can vary with herbicide, rate, and formulation. Therefore, research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice response to a sublethal concentration of paraquat applied at 84 g ai ha–1 in combination with common residual herbicides. Paraquat plus metribuzin injured rice 68% to 69% 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), which was 10% to 13% greater than injury following paraquat alone or paraquat plus fomesafen. Pooled across metribuzin and fomesafen treatments, paraquat reduced rough rice yields 23%. Paraquat plus 10 different residual herbicides injured rice ≥51% 28 DAT and reduced rough rice yields ≥21%. These studies indicate a severe negative impact on rice growth and development following exposure to a sublethal concentration of paraquat alone or in mixture with common residual herbicides. Therefore, applications of paraquat plus residual herbicides to fields in proximity to rice should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement.
Acifluorfen is a nonsystemic PPO-inhibiting herbicide commonly used for POST Palmer amaranth control in soybean, peanut, and rice across the southern United States. Concerns have been raised regarding herbicide selection pressure and particle drift, increasing the need for application practices that optimize herbicide efficacy while mitigating spray drift. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Mississippi and Nebraska to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 μm (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)], using acifluorfen to create a novel Palmer amaranth management recommendation using pulse width modulation (PWM) technology. A pooled site-year generalized additive model (GAM) analysis suggested that 150-μm (Fine) droplets should be used to obtain the greatest Palmer amaranth control and dry biomass reduction. Nevertheless, GAM models indicated that only 7.2% of the variability observed in Palmer amaranth control was due to differences in spray droplet size. Therefore, location-specific GAM analyses were performed to account for geographical differences to increase the accuracy of prediction models. GAM models suggested that 250-μm (Medium) droplets optimize acifluorfen efficacy on Palmer amaranth in Dundee, MS, and 310-μm (Medium) droplets could sustain 90% of maximum weed control. Specific models for Beaver City, NE, indicated that 150-μm (Fine) droplets provide maximum Palmer amaranth control, and 340-μm (Medium) droplets could maintain 90% of greatest weed control. For Robinsonville, MS, optimal Palmer amaranth control could be obtained with 370-μm (Coarse) droplets, and 90% maximum control could be sustained with 680 μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets. Differences in optimal droplet size across location could be a result of convoluted interactions between droplet size, weather conditions, population density, plant morphology, and soil fertility levels. Future research should adopt a holistic approach to identify and investigate the influence of environmental and application parameters to optimize droplet size recommendations.
Herbicide applications performed with pulse width modulation (PWM) sprayers to deliver specific spray droplet sizes could maintain product efficacy, minimize potential off-target movement, and increase flexibility in field operations. Given the continuous expansion of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations across the southern and midwestern United States, efficacious and cost-effective means of application are needed to maximize Palmer amaranth control. Experiments were conducted in two locations in Mississippi (2016, 2017, and 2018) and one location in Nebraska (2016 and 2017) for a total of 7 site-years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)] on lactofen and acifluorfen efficacy for Palmer amaranth control. The results of this research indicated that spray droplet size did not influence lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth control and percent dry-biomass reduction remained consistent with lactofen applied within the aforementioned droplet size range. Therefore, larger spray droplets should be used as part of a drift mitigation approach. In contrast, acifluorfen application with 300-μm (Medium) spray droplets provided the greatest Palmer amaranth control. Although percent biomass reduction was numerically greater with 300-μm (Medium) droplets, results did not differ with respect to spray droplet size, possibly as a result of initial plant injury, causing weight loss, followed by regrowth. Overall, 900-μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets could be used effectively without compromising lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth, and 300-μm (Medium) droplets should be used to achieve maximum Palmer amaranth control with acifluorfen.
Rice with enhanced tolerance to herbicides that inhibit acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase) allows POST application of quizalofop, an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide. Two concurrent field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 near Stoneville, MS, to evaluate control of grass (Grass Study) and broadleaf (Broadleaf Study) weeds with sequential applications of quizalofop alone and in mixtures with auxinic herbicides applied in the first or second application. Sequential treatments of quizalofop were applied at 119 g ai ha−1 alone and in mixtures with labeled rates of auxinic herbicides to rice at the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) or four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) growth stages. In the Grass Study, no differences in rice injury or control of volunteer rice (‘CL151’ and ‘Rex’) were detected 14 and 28 d after last application (DA-LPOST). Barnyardgrass control at 14 and 28 DA-LPOST with quizalofop applied alone or with auxinic herbicides EPOST was ≥93% for all auxinic herbicide treatments except penoxsulam plus triclopyr. Barnyardgrass control was ≥96% with quizalofop applied alone and with auxinic herbicides LPOST. In the Broadleaf Study, quizalofop plus florpyrauxifen-benzyl controlled more Palmer amaranth 14 DA-LPOST than other mixtures with auxinic herbicides, and control with this treatment was greater EPOST compared with LPOST. Hemp sesbania control 14 DA-LPOST was ≤90% with quizalofop plus quinclorac LPOST, orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST, and triclopyr EPOST or LPOST. All mixtures except quinclorac and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST controlled ivyleaf morningglory ≥91% 14 DA-LPOST. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl or triclopyr were required for volunteer soybean control >63% 14 DA-LPOST. To optimize barnyardgrass control and rice yield, penoxsulam plus triclopyr and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac should not be mixed with quizalofop. Quizalofop mixtures with auxinic herbicides are safe and effective for controlling barnyardgrass, volunteer rice, and broadleaf weeds in ACCase-resistant rice, and the choice of herbicide mixture could be adjusted based on weed spectrum in the treated field.
Research was conducted from 2013 to 2015 across three sites in Mississippi to evaluate corn response to sublethal paraquat or fomesafen (105 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively) applied PRE, or to corn at the V1, V3, V5, V7, or V9 growth stages. Fomesafen injury to corn at three d after treatment (DAT) ranged from 0% to 38%, and declined over time. Compared with the nontreated control (NTC), corn height 14 DAT was reduced approximately 15% due to fomesafen exposure at V5 or V7. Exposure at V1 or V7 resulted in 1,220 and 1,110 kg ha−1 yield losses, respectively, compared with the NTC, but yield losses were not observed at any other growth stage. Fomesafen exposure at any growth stage did not affect corn ear length or number of kernel rows relative to the NTC. Paraquat injury to corn ranged from 26% to 65%, depending on growth stage and evaluation interval. Corn exposure to paraquat at V3 or V5 consistently caused greater injury across evaluation intervals, compared with other growth stages. POST timings of paraquat exposure resulted in corn height reductions of 13% to 50%, except at V7, which was most likely due to rapid internode elongation at that stage. Likewise, yield loss occurred after all exposure times of paraquat except PRE, compared with the NTC. Corn yield was reduced 1,740 to 5,120 kg ha−1 compared with the NTC, generally worsening as exposure time was delayed. Paraquat exposure did not reduce corn ear length, compared with the NTC, at any growth stage. However, paraquat exposure at V3 or V5 was associated with reduction of kernel rows by 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, relative to the NTC. Paraquat and fomesafen applications near corn should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement, because significant injury and yield loss can result.
Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.