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Consumer satisfaction is considered one of the most important measures of service quality in child mental health; however, there is limited understanding of factors that influence satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate key factors influencing satisfaction with care (SWC) in ADMiRE, a specialist service for young people (YP) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Parents/carers (n = 67) and YP > 9 years (n = 44) attending ADMiRE completed an anonymous Experience of Service Questionnaire (ESQ), a quantitative/qualitative measure of service user satisfaction. Parents/carers also completed symptom severity rating scales. Data were analysed to determine (i) overall SWC, (ii) the relationship between parent- and youth-reported SWC and (iii) the impact of symptom severity on SWC. Thematic analysis of qualitative ESQ data was completed.
Parents/carers were significantly more satisfied than YP (p = 0.028). Symptom severity did not impact significantly on parent/carer satisfaction. YP with severe hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms were significantly less satisfied with care than those with less severe ADHD symptoms (p = 0.022 and p = 0.017 respectively). Factors related to the therapeutic alliance were identified as being particularly important to both parents/carers and YP.
This is the first Irish study that has investigated the impact of symptom severity on service user satisfaction in a child mental health service. The results highlight the different perspectives of YP and parents and provide novel insights into the impact of symptom severity on service user satisfaction. The importance of the therapeutic alliance should not be underestimated in future development of services.
The ‘16Up’ study conducted at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute from January 2014 to December 2018 aimed to examine the physical and mental health of young Australian twins aged 16−18 years (N = 876; 371 twin pairs and 18 triplet sets). Measurements included online questionnaires covering physical and mental health as well as information and communication technology (ICT) use, actigraphy, sleep diaries and hair samples to determine cortisol concentrations. Study participants generally rated themselves as being in good physical (79%) and mental (73%) health and reported lower rates of psychological distress and exposure to alcohol, tobacco products or other substances than previously reported for this age group in the Australian population. Daily or near-daily online activity was almost universal among study participants, with no differences noted between males and females in terms of frequency or duration of internet access. Patterns of ICT use in this sample indicated that the respondents were more likely to use online information sources for researching physical health issues than for mental health or substance use issues, and that they generally reported partial levels of satisfaction with the mental health information they found online. This suggests that internet-based mental health resources can be readily accessed by adolescent Australians, and their computer literacy augurs well for future access to online health resources. In combination with other data collected as part of the ongoing Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study, the 16Up project provides a valuable resource for the longitudinal investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation in a variety of human traits.
A single nucleotide polymorphism rs12807809 located upstream of the neurogranin (NRGN) gene has been identified as a risk variant for schizophrenia in recent genome-wide association studies. To date, there has been little investigation of the endophenotypic consequences of this variant, and our own investigations have suggested that the effects of this gene are not apparent at the level of cognitive function in patients or controls. Because the impact of risk variants may be more apparent at the level of brain, the aim of this investigation was to delineate whether NRGN genotype predicted variability in brain structure and/or function. Healthy individuals participated in structural (N = 140) and/or functional (N = 36) magnetic resonance imaging (s/fMRI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray and white matter volumes between carriers of the non-risk C allele (i.e., CC/CT) and those who were homozygous for the risk T allele. Functional imaging data were acquired during the performance of a spatial working memory task, and were also analyzed with respect to the difference between C carriers and T homozygotes. There was no effect of the NRGN variant rs12807809 on behavioral performance or brain structure. However, there was a main effect of genotype on brain activity during performance of the working memory task, such that while C carriers exhibited a load-independent decrease in left superior frontal gyrus/BA10, TT individuals failed to show a similar decrease in activity. The failure to disengage this ventromedial prefrontal region, despite preserved performance, may be indicative of a reduction in processing efficiency in healthy TT carriers. Although it remains to be established whether this holds true in larger samples and in patient cohorts, if valid, this suggests a potential mechanism by which NRGN variability might contribute to schizophrenia risk.
This study investigates the presence of sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD) among children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-six children with ADHD (mean age 8.3 years, 18 males, 8 females), and 30 typically developing children (mean age 8.2 years, 21 males, 9 females) were tested using a laboratory procedure that gauges responses to repeated sensory stimulation by measuring electrodermal reactivity (EDR). Parental report measures of limitations in sensory, emotional, and attentional dimensions were administered using the Short Sensory Profile, the Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised, Parent Rating subscales, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Compared to the typical sample, the children with ADHD displayed greater abnormalities in sensory modulation on both physiological and parent-report measures. The children with ADHD also displayed more variability in responses. Within the group with ADHD, levels of SMD were highly correlated with measures of psychopathology on the CBCL. Implications of findings relate to the importance of considering sensory processing abilities in a subgroup of children with ADHD.
The lengths of chthamalid cyprids collected during August 1996 on six rocky shores in County Cork, Ireland are reported. The lengths showed a bimodal distribution. The smaller length mode corresponded well with the length range of laboratory-reared cyprids of Chthamalus montagui (Crustacea: Cirripedia), whilst the larger length mode was greater than the length range reported for laboratory-reared C. stellatus. Size may be a useful means to identify Chthamalus cyprids in field investigations.
Attached cypris larvae and less than one month old metamorphs of Chthamalus stellatus and C. montagui (Crustacea: Cirripedia) were sampled from random quadrats on two shores in County Cork, Ireland, from July 1996 to June 1997. Cyprids of C. stellatus were much more abundant than those of C. montagui, but the relative abundance of metamorphs of the two species did not differ significantly. Cyprid abundance predicted metamorph recruitment intensity during peak settlement in C. stellatus but not in C. montagui.
To compare resource use by diagnostic outcome among hospital admissions during which tuberculosis (TB) was suspected.
Retrospective study based on chart review and microbiology laboratory data.
The department of medicine in a municipal hospital serving central Brooklyn, New York.
We identified all adult admissions in 1993 during which TB was suspected. We assigned each admission to one of four mutually exclusive groups defined by the results of microbiological tests (acid-fast bacilli [AFB] smear and culture): culture-positive and smear-positive (C + S +); culture-positive and smear-negative (C + S−); culture-negative and smear-positive (C−S+); or culture-negative and smear-negative (C−S−). Each admission was divided into two separate periods to which the utilization of medical resources was assigned: the diagnostic and the postdiagnostic periods, which were separated by the date of receipt of the first definitive culture report.
Data on 519 admissions (93 C+S+; 57 C+S−; 30 C−S+; and 339 C−S−) were analyzed. Although C+S+ were more likely than other groups to have an admitting diagnosis of TB, approximately one quarter of the admissions without TB (C−S+, C−S−) were admitted with the principal diagnosis of TB. For the four groups, C+S+, C+S−, C−S+, and C−S−, the respective rates of TB isolation and anti-TB treatment, and median lengths of isolation were 98%, 87%, and 34 days; 74%, 74%, and 7 days; 83%, 83%, and 15 days; and 44%, 29%, and 0 days. During the diagnostic period, the rate and length of isolation were similar in the AFB-smear—positive groups (C+S+ and C−S+). We estimated that admissions without culture-proven TB (C−S+ and C−S−) accounted for 3,174 (36%) of the 8,712 days of TB isolation expended and for 65% of the 16,671 days of anti-TB treatment. The vast majority of this resource consumption (2,737 [86%] of 3,174 days of isolation) occurred during the diagnostic period before a definitive culture result was known.
Our results suggest that prolonged diagnostic uncertainty and misclassification of cases due to false-positive and false-negative smears are associated with substantial medical-resource consumption. New diagnostic modalities that reduce the period of diagnostic uncertainty could reduce the utilization of resources later found to be unnecessary
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