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Attaching a wireless transmission system comprising a radio frequency (RF)-chip and a dipole antenna to dielectric material of largely different permittivity leads to strong variation of the antenna feed impedance. Due to the severe impedance mismatch between the RF-chip and the antenna, the performance of the system may deteriorate drastically. The proposed antenna provides three feed points, which show respective feed-point match to 100 Ohm balanced feeds for three different dielectric environments (free-space and half-spaces of permittivity 4 and 42, respectively). Thereby, the RF-chip incorporates three 100 Ohm balanced output ports that are connected to the antenna from whom only one can be selected to provide the output signal. The respective other two output ports are shorted by an internal switching circuit that is controlled by external DC voltages. The measurement of the reflection coefficient of the stand-alone antenna and the chip agree well with the simulations, allowing to interconnect these two components. Further, the radiation pattern of the whole system is measured for two different scenarios showing good functionalities.
Exposing the near field of an antenna to varying dielectric environment causes changes of the antenna input impedance and, thus, unwanted feed mismatch. Feeding such an antenna at different points, and selecting an appropriate feed for best match at a given scenario, may solve the problem. For the case of two scenarios of different dielectric environments and an antenna with two feed points, this work presents a passive power divider network, which keeps the antenna matched to the source in either scenario. Specific impedance transformations in the two branches of the divider network realize power transfer in a first scenario from the source to complex feed impedance at the first antenna feed, while in a second scenario, with now different antenna feed impedances, matched power transfer is from the source to the second antenna feed. Analytical formulae are derived for the design of the divider network. An experiment uses an example antenna with two feeds and a microstrip divider network, connected to a common 50 ohm port. Measurements are conducted with the antenna radiating, first, in air and, secondly, into butter. The measurements show antenna match at 1 GHz in either case and agree well with the analytical results.
Millimeter-wave band-pass filters using spherical dielectric resonators are presented. The dielectric spheres are sandwiched between metal plates and are excited by a simple microstrip line structure on a thin-film circuit board. As such, these filters could also be implemented in the back-end-of-line layers of an integrated circuit. A single resonator, based on a diameter 0.6 mm alumina ceramic sphere, is shown to resonate with high unloaded Q-factor of 750 at 170 GHz. A three-sphere band-pass filter is measured showing <5 dB insertion loss and 0.4% bandwidth at 170 GHz. A concept for mechanically tuning of a two-sphere band-pass filter is demonstrated for a filter operating around 105 GHz. The measured filter shows approximately 5 dB insertion loss and <0.5% bandwidth and its passband can be varied over 3 GHz of frequency, or 3%. Technological challenges are discussed.
A flexible and adaptive energy-efficient high-speed wireless hub is developed in polymer foil as a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF) using Chip-Film Patch (CFP) technology. In this matter, the SiGe BiCMOS silicon chips (2.39 × 1.65 mm2) are thinned down to 45 μm and are embedded face-up inside a two-polymer CFP carrier. The active pads of the embedded silicon chips inside foil are extended to the surface of the foil to interconnect to the antenna on the foil. The integrated hybrid system has a signal transmission at 5–6 GHz frequency band. The overall thickness of the system is below 100 μm and its bendability is down to 4 mm radius of curvature. The designed and fabricated PA silicon chips operate at 50 mA with a 1.5 V supply voltage. Therefore, in addition to the high lateral thermal resistance of the thinned chip, self-heating loop inside polymer due to the low thermal conductivity of the embedding polymer raises the system temperature. Consequently, the thermal behavior and RF performance of the PA chip under different conditions are investigated. Moreover, the antenna with the required carrier frequency is simulated, fabricated, and measured on top of the polymer foil as a stand-alone system in the flexible CFP.
Dielectric stepped-index flat lens antennas for operation at 12 GHz are presented. A brick-shaped dielectric with a permittivity profile optimized for focusing is sandwiched between the metallic plates of an open-ended parallel-plate waveguide. A tapered slot antenna is placed at the focal point of the dielectric lens, thereby creating antennas with high directivity of 16.8 and 15.8 dBi, respectively. In the two versions of the antenna, the parallel-plate waveguide operates in TEM-mode and in the first higher-order TE-mode, respectively. The dielectric profile is realized by appropriate mixtures of alumina ceramic powder and microscopic hollow glass spheres, realizing permittivity ranging from εrel = 1.31 to εrel = 3.24. The design of the complete antennas is based on geometrical optics followed by optimizations with a full-wave electromagnetic solver. Measurements show good agreement with simulations.
This paper presents four continuously variable W-band phase shifters in terms of design, fabrication, and radiofrequency (RF) characterization. They are based on low-loss ridge waveguide resonators tuned by electrostatically actuated highly conductive rigid fingers with measured variable deflection between 0.3° and 8.25° (at a control voltage of 0–27.5 V). A transmission-type phase shifter based on a tunable highly coupled resonator has been manufactured and measured. It shows a maximum figure of merit (FOM) of 19.5°/dB and a transmission phase variation of 70° at 98.4 GHz. The FOM and the transmission phase shift are increased to 55°/dB and 134°, respectively, by the effective coupling of two tunable resonances at the same device with a single tuning element. The FOM can be further improved for a tunable reflective-type phase shifter, consisting of a transmission-type phase shifter in series with a passive resonator and a waveguide short. Such a reflective-type phase shifter has been built and tested. It shows a maximum FOM of 101°/dB at 107.4 GHz. Here, the maximum phase shift varied between 0° and 377° for fingers deflections between 0.3° and 8.25°.
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