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In patients with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot, some employ the use of beta-blockade. The theoretical benefit of this therapy is felt to be one of the two: 1) reduction in heart rate with subsequent increase in diastolic filling time and stroke volume; 2) halting or reversal of right ventricular remodelling. This study aimed to characterise the use of beta-blockade in paediatric admissions with complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot and characterise the effects of beta-blockade on admission characteristics.
Admissions from 2004 to 2015 in the Pediatric Health Information System database with complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot were identified. Characteristics between admissions with and without beta-blockade were compared by univariate analysis. Next, regression analyses were conducted to determine the independent association of beta-blockade on length of admission, billed charges, cardiac arrest, and inpatient mortality while controlling for demographic variables and comorbidities.
A total of 3594 admissions were included in the final analyses. Of these, 371 employed beta-blockade. Admissions with beta-blockade were more likely to have heart failure and tachyarrhythmias. These admissions also tended to be longer by univariate analysis. Regression analyses demonstrated that beta-blockade was independently associated with a 2.8-day increase in length of stay and no statistically significant change in billed charges, cardiac arrest, or inpatient mortality.
Beta-blockade after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot is associated with a longer length of stay but did not statistically significantly impact billed charges, cardiac arrest, or inpatient mortality.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that accounts for 0.25–0.50% of children with congenital cardiac disease and can cause myocardial dysfunction in young infants. In any infant presenting with ventricular dysfunction, the diagnosis of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery must be suspected and the origin of the coronary arteries must be confirmed. The diagnosis of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is an indication for surgical repair. A two-coronary arterial system is the goal and is almost always achievable. The goal of surgical therapy is the creation of a two-coronary arterial system, which appears to provide better long-term survival and protection from left ventricular dysfunction and mitral valvar regurgitation than does simple ligation of the anomalous coronary artery. Direct reimplantation of the anomalous coronary artery is the procedure of choice. It is straightforward and borrows from well-practised techniques commonly used in other procedures such as the arterial switch operation. For the rare patient in whom direct reimplantation is not possible, strategies to lengthen the anomalous coronary artery, or baffle it within the pulmonary root, are available. Mitral valvar regurgitation is common at presentation, but following the establishment of a two-coronary arterial system and satisfactory myocardial perfusion, regurgitation of the mitral valve resolves in the vast majority. Therefore, mitral valvuloplasty at the time of initial surgery for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is not indicated. Post-operative care requires careful manipulation of inotropic support and reduction of afterload. Mechanical support, with either extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or left ventricular assist device, should be available for use if necessary.
Innovation in surgical and medical management of cardiac disease has generated a dramatic improvement in operative survival. Along with these favourable results in terms of survival is the heightened awareness of neurologic complications, which often become evident beyond the early postoperative period. A large, multicentre prospective study found serious neurologic injury occurs in about one-twentieth of patients after myocardial revascularization in adults.1 More subtle evidence of persistent cognitive decline and functional impairment has been shown to occur in over two-fifths of such patients.2 Acute neurologic abnormalities are reported in up to one-fifth of infants and children who undergo cardiac surgery.3–6 Lasting impairments in cognitive, motor, and expressive functioning have been reported in up to three-fifths of children who have undergone complex cardiac surgery during infancy.7 Specifically, gross and fine motor delays, visual-spatial problems, language deficits and long-term emotional and behavioural problems have been found.8–13
For children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, contemporary management over three stages includes a window of high risk for sudden death between the initial stage of palliation, the Norwood operation itself, and the second stage, creation of the bidirectional superior cavopulmonary connection. The risk is highest at a time when patients have been discharged from the hospital to grow and prepare for the second stage,1–4 and has persisted despite the remarkable improvements in immediate postoperative and hospital survival after the initial surgery.5,6 Potential contributing factors to the increased vulnerability to sudden death between the stages include the limited circulatory reserve inherent in the parallel circulations supported by a functionally univentricular heart, the reliance on a prosthetic shunt which is susceptible to thrombosis, and congenital or acquired anatomical cardiovascular abnormalities such as aortic atresia, residual obstruction in the aortic arch, tricuspid valvar insufficiency, or right ventricular dysfunction.7–12
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