The Critically Endangered hirola Beatragus hunteri exists in two populations, a natural population on the Kenyan–Somali border and a translocated population in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. The Tsavo population is becoming increasingly important for the survival of the hirola yet its status is unknown and little is understood about the factors that limit its growth. Here we report the size, distribution and demographic parameters of the Tsavo population of hirola and consider whether insufficient suitable habitat could be limiting its growth. The Tsavo population has not increased since 2000, when the last census was carried out, but neither has it significantly decreased. The importance of habitat as a limiting factor is dependent on the hirola's ability to utilize marginal habitat.