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The paper presents the error characteristics of a vehicle dynamic model (VDM)-based integration architecture for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit measurements are fused in an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which uses the VDM as the main process model. Control inputs from the autopilot system are used to drive the navigation solution. Using a predefined trajectory with segments of both high and low dynamics and a variable wind profile, Monte Carlo simulations reveal a degrading performance in varying periods of GNSS outage lasting 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 60 s and 90 s, respectively. These are followed by periods of re-acquisition where the navigation solution recovers. With a GNSS outage lasting less than 60 s, the position error gradually grows to a maximum of 8⋅4 m while attitude errors in roll and pitch remain bounded, as opposed to an inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS approach in which the navigation solution degrades rapidly. The model-based approach shows improved navigation performance even with parameter uncertainties over a conventional INS/GNSS integration approach.
Indoor localisation has always been a challenging problem due to poor Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) availability in such environments. While inertial measurement sensors have become popular solutions for indoor positioning, they suffer large drifts after initialisation. Collaborative positioning enhances positioning robustness by integrating multiple localisation information, especially relative ranging measurements between local users and transmitters. However, not all ranging measurements are useful throughout the whole positioning process and integrating too much data will increase the computation cost. To enable a more reliable positioning system, an adaptive collaborative positioning algorithm is proposed which selects units for the collaborative network and integrates ranging measurement to constrain inertial measurement errors. The algorithm selects the network adaptively from three perspectives: the network geometry, the network size and the accuracy level of the ranging measurements between the units. The collaborative relative constraint is then defined according to the selected network geometry and anticipated measurement quality. In the case of trials with real data, the positioning accuracy is improved by 60% by adjusting the range constraint adaptively according to the selected network situation, while also improving the system robustness.