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The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
An experienced host prepares to serve a ceremonial fowl. The guests look on with anticipation. The knife is sharpened. After he identifies the gap between thigh and body, the carving proceeds neatly. This image is often invoked in discussions of diagnostic systems, speaking of ‘carving nature at its joints’. But what if the entity in question does not have joints? This is the essence of the bipolar spectrum perspective.
Most diagnostic systems – and many clinicians – categorise illnesses as discrete entities. This monograph has a similar orientation. In focusing on Bipolar II Disorder (BP II), it assumes that this is a distinct condition or entity and able to be distinguished from other putatively categorical mood disorders (particularly Bipolar I Disorder (BP I) and unipolar depression). But what if BP II is not an entity but rather a point on a continuous spectrum of mood disorders? This chapter examines such a proposition.
At least eight recent reviews have been written on the bipolar spectrum concept – including a chapter by the chairman of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force (Ghaemi et al., 2006); and a review with recommendations for changes to the DSM–IV, prepared for that Task Force by this author and colleagues (Phelps et al., 2007); as well as six other cogent overviews (Katzow et al., 2003; Dunner, 2003; Moller and Curtis, 2004; Angst and Cassano, 2005; Mondimore, 2005; Skeppar and Adolfsson, 2006).
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are used in a number of applications as a protective barrier to extreme environments. One such application of FGMs is to protect metal parts from high temperature environments. FGM coatings are plasma spray deposited onto surfaces of both simple and complex machined parts. Knowing the thermal conductivity of the FGM coating allows engineers to effectively develop high temperature designs with accurate estimates of heat transfer and thermal loading.
In this study, a FGM made by Caterpillar, USA, was measured with our steady state thermal conductivity measurement apparatus. The sample measured is a 10 layer graded coating using a Metro* 461 bond coan4 to a Metco* 205 ceria-yittria stabilized zirconia, with a Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y metal grading. Figure 1 shows a plot of the thermal conductivity (W/m*K) as a function of temperature (K) for this material. The sudden drop in thermal conductivity at approximately 1073K was totally unexpected
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