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Tigers Panthera tigris are highly threatened and continue to decline across their entire range. Actions to restore and conserve populations need to be based on science but, in South-east Asia, information on ecology and behaviour of tigers is lacking. This study reports the relationship between the home range size of female tigers and prey abundance, using data from radio-collared tigers in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, and published data from other studies. A total of 11 tigers, four males and seven females, were fitted with global positioning system collars, to estimate home ranges using 95 and 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP). Prey abundance was estimated by faecal accumulation rates. The mean home range size of male tigers was 267 and 294 km2 based on 95 and 100% MCPs, respectively; the mean female home range size was 70 and 84 km2, respectively. Territories of male and female tigers had little overlap, which indicated both sexes were territorial. Mean densities of the prey species sambar Rusa unicolor, barking deer Muntiacus muntjac and large bovids were 7.5, 3.5 and 3.0 km−2, respectively. When female home range size and prey abundance were compared at six locations in Thailand, and at other sites in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Russia, a significant negative correlation was found between prey abundance and home range size. Monitoring this relationship can provide managers with metrics for setting conservation goals.
Basic information required to conserve wild tigers Panthera tigris is lacking for the Bangladesh Sundarbans. The objectives of this study were therefore to estimate tiger home range size and obtain information on movement. Two adult female tigers were captured in the south-east of the Sundarbans and fitted with global positioning system collars. Mean home range sizes for the two tigers estimated with 95% minimum convex polygon and fixed kernel methods were 12.3 and 14.2 km2, respectively. A mean female home range size of 14.2 km2 would indicate a density for the south-east Sundarbans of seven adult females per 100 km2. The maximum distance moved by a tiger in 1 day was 11.3 km. Although preliminary these home range estimates indicate that the Sundarbans of Bangladesh has good quality tiger habitat relative to other tiger landscapes, highlighting the value of this mangrove ecosystem for the survival of this Endangered species.
Livestock grazing restrictions are a common practice in the protected areas of developing countries. Understanding the influence of these restrictions on livestock husbandry is critical because local people's livelihoods often depend on access to grazing lands and biodiversity conservation may be affected by grazing activities. Household surveys and government records were used to examine impacts of grazing restrictions on livestock composition and use of available forage resources in the Madi Valley of Chitwan National Park (Nepal) during early (1997) and late (2006) restriction policy periods. Households responded to grazing restrictions by reducing numbers of less productive cattle and high maintenance buffalo to offset forage demands, but there was no decrease in the number of goats. In 2006, average household fodder biomass (3.4 t yr−1) available from agricultural land was adequate for the average household livestock units (3.3 t yr−1) requirement. Although most households ‘stall fed’ livestock as an adjustment to the new policy, about 30% still depended on community forests and parklands for livestock rearing. Higher ‘stall feeding’ reduced grazing pressure and increased forest cover but demanded more fodder cutting, which has the potential to increase human/wildlife interactions, particularly with tigers in the buffer zone community forests.
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