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This article provides an overview of selected ongoing international efforts that have been inspired by Edward Zigler's vision to improve programs and policies for young children and families in the United States. The efforts presented are in close alignment with three strategies articulated by Edward Zigler: (a) conduct research that will inform policy advocacy; (b) design, implement, and revise quality early childhood development (ECD) programs; and (c) invest in building the next generation of scholars and advocates in child development. The intergenerational legacy left by Edward Zigler has had an impact on young children not only in the United States, but also across the globe. More needs to be done. We need to work together with a full commitment to ensure the optimal development of each child.
Poor physical health in severe mental illness (SMI) remains a major issue for clinical practice.
To use electronic health records of routinely collected clinical data to determine levels of screening for cardiometabolic disease and adverse health outcomes in a large sample (n = 7718) of patients with SMI, predominantly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
We linked data from the Glasgow Psychosis Clinical Information System (PsyCIS) to morbidity records, routine blood results and prescribing data.
There was no record of routine blood monitoring during the preceding 2 years for 16.9% of the cohort. However, monitoring was poorer for male patients, younger patients aged 16–44, those with schizophrenia, and for tests of cholesterol, triglyceride and glycosylated haemoglobin. We estimated that 8.0% of participants had diabetes and that lipids levels, and use of lipid-lowering medication, was generally high.
Electronic record linkage identified poor health screening and adverse health outcomes in this vulnerable patient group. This approach can inform the design of future interventions and health policy.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
The decades surrounding the opening of the twentieth century saw one of the most significant shifts in the character of American public life. A political order dominated by decentralized parties and a limited state gave way to one defined by interest group activism, weaker parties, and more vigorous government. Scholars argue over the degree and extent of these changes, but few quarrel with the claim that public life looked substantially different by the end of the Progressive Era. Americans accepted interest group pluralism in principle and in practice by the 1920s, and the ideal of a politics devoted to an undifferentiated common good lost much of its persuasive power.
The effects on milk composition and processing characteristics of varying
grass supply by changing stocking density and of offering a concentrate supplement
were investigated. The experiment was conducted over 28 weeks of the lactation
(April–October) using 48 spring-calved Friesian–Holstein cows. Three herds each of
16 cows were offered a restricted grass supply, a standard grass supply and a
standard grass supply with a supplement of 3 kg concentrate/d. Treatment groups
were grazed separately with a residence time of 3 d/paddock. Milk production,
composition and processing characteristics such as renneting properties, ethanol
stability and plasmin activity were measured weekly. Increasing stocking density
above the standard system resulted in significant reductions in milk fat and protein
yields, the concentrations of total protein, casein and whey proteins, and a
deterioration in most processing characteristics. Imposing concentrate supplementation
on the standard system increased total protein, casein and whey protein
concentrations but generally did not improve processing characteristics except for
ethanol stability. These results suggest that the standard grass supply in a rotational
grazing paddock system can support efficient production of quality milk, and
concentrate supplementation will not improve processing characteristics when an
adequate supply of good quality herbage is available.
Milk was collected from three spring-calving herds,
on different daily
herbage allowances (DHA) of perennial rye-grass (16, 20 or
24 kg dry matter (DM)/cow for a 17 week period. On
five occasions, at weekly intervals in the middle
of the period, the three different milks were converted
into low-moisture part-skim
Mozzarella cheese. Increasing the DHA resulted in significant
increases in the concentrations of protein in the cheesemilk
(P<0·05) and cheese whey
(P<0·02). The moisture-adjusted cheese
yield increased significantly (P<0·01) on
raising the DHA from 16 to 24 kg grass DM/cow. DHA had no
significant effects on any of the
gross compositional values of the cheese (although moisture
and fat-in-DM levels
tended to decrease and increase respectively with increasing
DHA). The hardness of
the uncooked cheese and functionality of cooked cheese
(i.e. melt time, flowability,
stretch and viscosity) were not significantly influenced by
DHA over the 115 d ripening period at 4°C.
Milk production in Ireland, New Zealand and Australia is seasonal,
majority of cows calving in spring. This pattern of production makes the
use of grazed grass, and in Ireland >80% of total milk for manufacturing
produced between April and November inclusive. Such a seasonal pattern
production results in a large variation in the gross composition of
milk due to stage
of lactation effects (Phelan et al. 1982). Some studies
have investigated the
relationship between milk composition and its processing characteristics
al. 1982; Grandison et al. 1984); however, in these studies
the effects of diet and
lactation stage were not segregated. Kefford et al. (1995) attempted
to segregate the
effects of diet and stage of lactation and concluded that diet quality
quantity) had a larger effect on Cheddar cheese quality than
the stage of lactation.
The nutritive value of the diet of cows fed on grazed grass can change
changes in grass supply or quality. In the current study, changes in
grass supply were
achieved by altering the daily herbage allowance (DHA) to the herds. The
of the current study was to investigate the effect of varying the DHA in
16–24 kg grass dry matter (DM), which is typical of the variation
allowance in Ireland in mid lactation, on milk composition and its processing
Henry Adams (1918:7) once described nineteenth-century Massachusetts party politics as the “systematic organization of hatreds.” At first glance, his observation appears to be true for the early twentieth century as well, especially for Boston, where Brahmin reformers battled Irish bosses in an apparent reprise of a half-century-old conflict. But a closer examination reveals that while ethnic hatreds grew stronger in the city's twentieth-century public life, Progressive reform weakened partisan organization. In fact, political modernization produced tribal politics; such was Progressivism's ironic legacy in Boston. When the city's politics shifted from contests between grassroots parties to battles over shaping public opinion, ethnicity replaced partisanship as the primary source of local political identification. Conflict between Yankee and Irish now defined the city's public life as never before.
Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect on milk yield, milk composition and composition and physical properties of milk fat of giving full fat soyabeans (FFS) and full fat rapeseeds (FFR) to dairy cows. In both experiments grass silage was provided ad lib. and constituted over 50% of the dry matter (DM) intake of the cows. In experiment 1, cows received 7·25 kg/d of a concentrate mixture containing 240 g/kg of extruded FFS or 7·25 kg/d of a mixture without soyabeans. Cow performance was not significantly affected by the inclusion of FFS but fatty acid composition of the milk fat was greatly altered. The contents of C8:0 to C16:0 were significantly reduced (P < 0·001) while the contents of C18:0, C18:l and C18:2 were significantly increased (P < 0·001). Milk fat produced during feeding on FFS concentrate had a significantly lower content of solid fat at temperatures between 0 and 25 °C compared with milk fat produced when FFS was not given. In experiment 2, cows received concentrate mixtures containing either no whole rapeseed, 150 g/kg of whole unground FFR or 150 g/kg of ground FFR. Milk yield was significantly higher and silage DM intake significantly lower with the ground FFR concentrate compared with the other two diets but milk composition was not significantly different among treatments. FFR inclusion, either ground or unground, reduced diet digestibility. Changes in fatty acid composition of the milk fat were similar to those observed with FFS inclusion but the effect was larger with ground FFR compared with unground FFR. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed a lower solid fat content when the FFR diets were employed with the effect being greatest with ground FFR.
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