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In chapter 1, James Franklin provides valuable historical context for understanding Pascal’s Wager through an appreciation of its intended audience. Franklin shows that the argument emerged from deeply ingrained ideas about religion as a practical way of reasoning about high-stakes situations. A very important point in understanding these early versions, and Pascal’s formulation as well, is that the intended audience for the Wager was “real decision-makers” rather than philosophers. Real decision-makers, such as Pascal’s “man of the world” of 1660, face a range of religious options they take to be serious, with fixed probabilities grounded in their evidence and with utilities that are fixed quantities in actual minds. The many ingenious objections to the Wager dreamed up by philosophers, with their limitless range of possible gods, abstract
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
The spatial and temporal development of shear-induced overturning billows associated with breaking internal solitary waves is studied by means of a combined laboratory and numerical investigation. The waves are generated in the laboratory by a lock exchange mechanism and they are simulated numerically via a contour-advective semi-Lagrangian method. The properties of individual billows (maximum height attained, time of collapse, growth rate, speed, wavelength, Thorpe scale) are determined in each case, and the billow interaction processes are studied and classified. For broad flat waves, similar characteristics are seen to those in parallel shear flow, but, for waves not at the conjugate flow limit, billow characteristics are affected by the spatially varying wave-induced shear flow. Wave steepness and wave amplitude are shown to have a crucial influence on determining the type of interaction that occurs between billows and whether billow overturning can be arrested. Examples are given in which billows (i) evolve independently of one another, (ii) pair with one another, (iii) engulf/entrain one another and (iv) fail to completely overturn. It is shown that the vertical extent a billow can attain (and the associated Thorpe scale of the billow) is dependent on wave amplitude but that its value saturates once a given amplitude is reached. It is interesting to note that this amplitude is less than the conjugate flow limit amplitude. The number of billows that form on a wave is shown to be dependent on wavelength; shorter waves support fewer but larger billows than their long-wave counterparts for a given stratification.
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Milrinone may be an appropriate adjuvant therapy for infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We aimed to describe the effect of milrinone administration on right and left ventricular function in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension not responding to inhaled nitric oxide after 4 hours of administration.
Materials and methods
This is a retrospective review of infants born after or at 34 weeks of gestation with persistent pulmonary hypertension who received milrinone treatment. The primary endpoint was the effect of milrinone on myocardial performance and haemodynamics, including right and left ventricular outputs, tissue Doppler velocities, right ventricle and septal strain, and strain rate. Secondary endpoints examined included duration of inhaled nitric oxide and oxygen support.
A total of 17 infants with a mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of 39.8 (2.0) weeks and 3.45 (0.39) kilograms, respectively, were included in the study. The first echocardiogram was performed 15 hours after the commencement of nitric oxide inhalation. Milrinone treatment was started at a median time of 1 hour after the echocardiogram and was associated with an increase in left ventricular output (p=0.04), right ventricular output (p=0.004), right ventricle strain (p=0.01) and strain rate (p=0.002), and left ventricle s` (p<0.001) and a` (p=0.02) waves. There was a reduction in nitric oxide dose and oxygen requirement over the subsequent 72 hours (all p<0.05).
The use of milrinone as an adjunct to nitric oxide is worth further exploration, with preliminary evidence suggesting an improvement in both oxygenation and myocardial performance in this group of infants.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique thermal/electrical/mechanical properties and high aspect ratios. Growth of CNTs directly onto reactive material substrates (such as metals and carbon based foam structures, etc.) to create a micro-carbon composite layer on the surface has many advantages: possible elimination of processing steps and resistive junctions, provision of a thermally conductive transition layer between materials of varying thermal expansion coefficients, etc. Compared to growing CNTs on conventional inert substrates such as SiO2, direct growth of CNTs onto reactive substrates is significantly more challenging. Namely, control of CNT growth, structure, and morphology has proven difficult due to the diffusion of metallic catalysts into the substrate during CNT synthesis conditions. In this study, using a chemical vapor deposition method, uniform CNT layers were successfully grown on copper foil and carbon foam substrates that were pre-coated with an appropriate buffer layer such as Al2O3 or Al. SEM images indicated that growth conditions and, most notably, substrate surface pre-treatment all influence CNT growth and layer structure/morphology. The SEM images and pull-off testing results revealed that relatively strong bonding existed between the CNT layer and substrate material, and that normal interfacial adhesion (0.2‒0.5 MPa) was affected by the buffer layer thickness. Additionally, the thermal properties of the CNT/substrate structure were evaluated using a laser flash technique, which showed that the CNT layer can reduce thermal resistance when used as a thermal interface material between bonded layers.
The recent crisis has underlined the importance of the interaction of financial innovations and the housing market. We consider five major innovations relevant to housing finance. These are (i) mortgages; (ii) specialised housing finance institutions; (iii) government interventions in housing finance in the US during the Great Depression; (iv) covered bonds; and (v) securitised mortgages. The history of these innovations and their positive and negative aspects are discussed. Future innovations to help the stability of the housing market are also suggested.
Ground ivy and khakiweed are troublesome broadleaf weeds of warm-season turfgrass. Field studies were conducted in Tennessee (TN) and Texas (TX) from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the efficacy of sulfentrazone plus metsulfuron and carfentrazone plus metsulfuron tank mixtures compared with metsulfuron alone for control of ground ivy and khakiweed. In TN, sulfentrazone plus metsulfuron and carfentrazone plus metsulfuron provided accelerated control of ground ivy compared with metsulfuron alone. Over a 2-yr period, ground ivy control with metsulfuron at 10, 21, and 42 g ai ha−1 ranged from 0 to 5% 7 d after treatment (DAT) and 12 to 60% 14 DAT. Ground ivy control with mixtures of sulfentrazone plus metsulfuron ranged from 40 to 72% 7 DAT and 87 to 100% 14 DAT. Similarly, carfentrazone plus metsulfuron controlled ground ivy 5 to 32% 7 DAT and 23 to 93% 14 DAT. In TX, carfentrazone plus metsulfuron and sulfentrazone plus metsulfuron controlled khakiweed greater than metsulfuron alone 7 and 14 DAT as well. Few differences in ground ivy and khakiweed control were detected 56 DAT because metsulfuron applied alone at 21 g ai ha−1 controlled both weeds > 77%, similar to each mixture. These data indicate that when applied in mixtures, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone accelerate ground ivy and khakiweed control with metsulfuron but do not affect long-term efficacy.
Congenitally corrected transposition is a complex cardiac lesion that is often associated with ventricular septal defect, obstruction of the outflow tract of the morphologically left ventricle, and abnormalities of the morphologically tricuspid valve.1,2 Nomenclature for this lesion has been variable and confusing.1 In this review, we define, and hopefully clarify this terminology. The lesion is a combination of discordant union of the atrial chambers with the ventricles, and the ventricles with the arterial trunks.1,2 In rare circumstances, discordant atrioventricular connections can be associated with concordant ventriculo-arterial connections. This malformation has been called “isolated ventricular inversion”. The term is less than precise, and the descriptive approach using the phrase “discordant atrioventricular connections with concordant ventriculo-arterial connections” is preferred, as discussed below.
Field studies were conducted from 1998 through 2000 to compare weed population shifts in soybean and cotton using a total glyphosate system, preemergence (PRE) herbicides followed by glyphosate, and a conventional herbicide program. In the first year of the soybean study, populations of hemp sesbania were highest for treatments of PRE herbicides followed by either glyphosate or the conventional herbicide program because of better control from the total glyphosate system. Barnyardgrass populations in the first year of the study for the nontreated plots were 0 plants/m2 but increased in the third year to 61 plants/m2. Flumetsulam plus metolachlor followed by glyphosate at the lower rates and the nontreated check were the only treatments in which there was an increase in barnyardgrass over the 3-yr study. Broadleaf signalgrass populations increased in the third year with 0.1 kg ai/ha flumetsulam plus 2.1 kg ai/ha metolachlor followed by 0.84 kg ae/ha glyphosate, primarily because of reduced competition from lower populations of other weeds such as hemp sesbania. Pitted morningglory populations for all treatments decreased in the third year because of good control of this species and the high level of interference from other weed species in the first 2 yr. Johnsongrass populations decreased in the third year with 0.4 kg ai/ha flumetsulam plus 1.1 kg ai/ha metolachlor followed by 0.84 kg/ha glyphosate. Johnsongrass populations decreased with timely glyphosate sequential applications, with 5 plants/m2 in 1998 and 0 plants/m2 in 2000. Yields increased from the first year to the second year, corresponding to reduced weed pressure, and yields varied from 710 to 1,420 kg/ha. Because of weed pressure, soybean yields were not different in any of the treatments, including the nontreated, although treatments changed the species present. In the cotton study, weed populations over the 3 yr decreased, with the most significant reductions from the treatments of fluometuron plus prometryn plus metolachlor followed by either pyrithiobac or glyphosate. Weeds that showed the most significant decline were barnyardgrass and hemp sesbania, whereas johnsongrass increased, with 27 plants/m2 in treatments of 0.6 kg ai/ha fluometuron plus 0.3 kg ai/ha prometryn plus 0.7 kg ai/ha metolachlor followed by 0.84 kg/ha glyphosate. Lint cotton yields varied from 0 to 128 kg/ha. Because of the weed pressure, cotton yields were not different in any of the treatments, although treatments changed the species present. This research has shown that weed species can decrease over time with the continued use of any of these herbicide programs.
The imperviousness of mathematical truth to anti-objectivist attacks has always heartened those who defend objectivism in other areas, such as ethics. It is argued that the parallel between mathematics and ethics is close and does support objectivist theories of ethics. The parallel depends on the foundational role of equality in both disciplines. Despite obvious differences in their subject matter, mathematics and ethics share a status as pure forms of knowledge, distinct from empirical sciences. A pure understanding of principles is possible because of the simplicity of the notion of equality, despite the different origins of our understanding of equality of objects in general and of the equality of the ethical worth of persons.