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It considers an effective dispute resolution system is important to the success of the BRI. It could help to offset the fears that may otherwise turn trade and investment away. With predictable legal protections underwriting their participation in the scheme, trade and investment might more readily be encouraged to flow the full length of the BRI. The BRI will operate through, rather than aiming to replace, existing legal frameworks of cooperation and economic integration. Given that the types of disputes that might arise in the context of the BRI are notably diverse, no single mechanism of dispute settlement is possible.
We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.
We are interested in understanding how socially desirable traits like sympathy, reciprocity, and fairness can survive in environments that include aggressive and exploitative agents. Social scientists have long theorized about ingrained motivational factors as explanations for departures from self-seeking behaviors by human subjects. Some of these factors, namely reciprocity, have also been studied extensively in the context of agent systems as tools for promoting cooperation and improving social welfare in stable societies. In this paper, we evaluate how other factors like sympathy and parity can be used by agents to seek out cooperation possibilities while avoiding exploitation traps in more dynamic societies. We evaluate the relative effectiveness of agents influenced by different social considerations when they can change who they interact with in their environment using both an experimental framework and a predictive analysis. Such rewiring of social networks not only allows possibly vulnerable agents to avoid exploitation but also allows them to form gainful coalitions to leverage mutually beneficial cooperation, thereby significantly increasing social welfare.
Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising for applications in light emitting devices owing to a strong emission spectrum that is tunable throughout the visible region by altering halide composition. However, in mixed-halide perovskite systems photoinduced migration drives formation of halide-segregated domains, altering the emission spectrum. The mechanism by which this segregation occurs is currently the subject of intense investigation. Processes involving the perovskite surface are expected to be of enhanced prevalence in NCs due to their large surface area to volume ratio. In this work, we use transient absorption spectroscopy to probe the excited-state dynamics of NCs before and after halide segregation. Comparison of global fit spectra of the measured signals suggests the accumulation of iodide at the surface, resulting in a redshifted emission spectrum.
The photophysical properties of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are critical to their potential application in light emitting devices and other optoelectronics, and are typically characterized using optical spectroscopies. Measurements of nuclei and nascent NC photophysics during synthesis provide insight into how the reaction can be changed to control the properties of the resulting NCs. However, these measurements are typically only performed ex situ after growth is halted by centrifuging the reaction mixture for several minutes. Here, a method is reported to rapidly sample the reaction mixture during a solvation-limited synthesis to enable multiple spectroscopic measurements during nucleation and NC growth. Absorbance and fluorescence measurements of a reaction mixture during the formation of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite NCs are reported. The changing positions of spectral features as a function of reaction time show the expected weakening of exciton confinement during NC growth. The evolving fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the capping and surface passivation of nascent NCs changes during the reaction. The species in the reaction mixture, particularly during the early stages of the synthesis, are shown to be unstable. This indicates that, even for a relatively slow solvation-limited reaction, the photophysics of the reaction mixture can only be accurately captured if spectroscopic measurements are completed within seconds of sampling. The common use of centrifugation to quench NC syntheses prior to spectroscopic measurement biases the NC population towards more stable, well-capped NCs and does not accurately report on the full NC population in a reaction mixture.
The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of individual and aggregated screen-based behaviours, and total sitting time, with healthy and unhealthy dietary intakes among adolescents.
Cross-sectional study of adolescents. Participants self-reported durations of television viewing, computer use, playing electronic games (e-games), total sitting time, daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), diet beverages, fast foods and discretionary snacks. Logistic regression models were conducted to identify associations of screen-based behaviours, total screen time and total sitting time with dietary intakes.
Adolescents (n 939) in School Year 11 (mean age 16·8 years).
The results showed that watching television (≥2 h/d) was positively associated with consuming SSB and diet beverages each week and consuming discretionary snacks at least once daily, whereas computer use (≥2 h/d) was inversely associated with daily fruit and vegetable intake and positively associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Playing e-games (any) was inversely associated with daily vegetable intake and positively associated with weekly SSB consumption. Total screen (≥2 h/d) and sitting (h/d) times were inversely associated with daily fruit and vegetable consumption, with total screen time also positively associated with daily discretionary snack consumption and weekly consumption of SSB and fast foods.
Individual and aggregated screen-based behaviours, as well as total sitting time, are associated with a number of indicators of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake. Future research should explore whether reducing recreational screen time improves adolescents’ diets.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
In this study, Martin Dawidowicz examines one of the great, unresolved questions of current international law: the position of third-party countermeasures. The topic is a difficult and controversial one. The construction of a multilateral public order is based not so much on logic as some mixture of high hope and limited experience. The construction may rest on the imposing pseudo-Roman columns of jus cogens and obligations erga omnes – les grandes verticales – but these were largely based on assertion rather than actual performance. It seems that this ambitious construction may have reversed the Roman scheme that it is society that requires and generates the law: ubi societas, ibi jus. Nowadays it may seem that international law seeks to develop more rapidly than international society may allow, including in the field of communitarian law enforcement. However, as this study shows, the position is not quite so bleak – the present state of play embodies hope, no doubt, but also a deal of experience.
For the use of otherwise unlawful unilateral sanctions of a peaceful character taken in defence of communitarian norms – i.e. third-party countermeasures – is an increasingly common phenomenon in international relations. They are often resorted to by a large (and increasingly diverse) number of States acting in concert as part of a broader strategy to deal with major assaults on multilateral public order. There is much here that requires careful, thorough and sober analysis. Martin Dawidowicz provides all this.
This is – remarkably – the first study on third-party countermeasures in international law which addresses the topic in a systematic and comprehensive way, based on the turbulent and even occasionally idiosyncratic development of ideas on countermeasures in the International Law Commission, resulting in the compromise ‘solution’ found in Article 54 ARSIWA. Both sides of the argument in this fraught debate are given due consideration. The study rightly places emphasis on the greatest area of uncertainty – State practice – which has received too little attention. This approach has yielded a substantial harvest which is presented for the reader's consumption in a lucid, thoughtful and convincing manner. It makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the position of third-party countermeasures in international law. In doing so, it successfully challenges some widely held assumptions about the likely impact of a regime of third-party countermeasures on international relations.
A preliminary observation relates to the formalities of debating a question such as the present; in such a situation, the best way to win the debate is to interpret the motion such that you cannot lose. Those speaking for the motion have defined “expansive” as meaning undue or excessive, and no one would disagree with that proposition if that is the correct interpretation.
We provide new empirical evidence on the importance of defined contribution pension wealth in England, and the nature of annuitization decisions taken by older adults who retire with such sources of wealth. Other things equal, financial literacy, and numeracy in particular, are important factors governing individuals’ choices over whether to shop around for an annuity as opposed to taking the ‘path of least resistance’ option and purchasing from their original pension fund provider. This has important policy and welfare implications given that buying an annuity on the open market has significant financial benefits for most people. In the context of the increasing reliance on private provision for retirement, the importance of individuals having the financial literacy to successfully navigate complex financial decisions late in life should not be underestimated.
This article presents an account of international law and its possible future that revolves around three key themes: responsibility, fraternity, and sustainability. These three themes were promoted by Charles Doherty Gonthier, visionary justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1989 to 2003, for whom the inaugural lecture where this article was presented is named.
Investment disputes often engage matters of the public interest. One of the most significant challenges facing international investment law today is the need to balance the interests of investors in the protection of their investment with the regulatory interests of host States. At times, ad hoc tribunals deciding investment treaty claims have produced decisions with seemingly little regard for the latter interests. This contributes to a concern on the part of States that international investment law is becoming one-sided, favouring claimant investors over host States.
The UNCITRAL Rules on Transparency in Treaty-based Investor- State Arbitration underline the public interest function of those tribunals and should help to render these disputes more visible. The UNCITRAL Rules, analysed in this book, could facilitate third parties’ access to proceedings and thereby increase the transparency of these disputes in the public interest.
The editors, Dimitrij Euler, Maxi Scherer and Markus Gehring, all have strong research and professional links to investment law. Dimitrij Euler, a PhD researcher at the University of Basel and a former Visiting Scholar at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law in Cambridge, focuses his research on transparency and arbitration. Dr Maxi Scherer, a Senior Lecturer at Queen Mary, University of London (School of International Arbitration) and Special Counsel at Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, is a distinguished scholar and has acted as arbitrator in investment arbitration. Dr Markus W. Gehring, MA (Cantab), LLM (Yale), Dr jur (Hamburg), is Deputy Director of the Centre for European Legal Studies (CELS) at the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge and a Fellow at Hughes Hall and at the Lauterpacht Centre. He has worked extensively on sustainable development in investment and trade law.
Their edited commentary reflects the search for increased transparency in investment law and provides a useful insight into the history and interpretation of the UNCITRAL Rules. They have gathered together contributions from authors with diverse backgrounds in academia, private and public legal practice and international organisations. These different perspectives add to our understanding of this new set of international standards. Their analysis of the history and of relevant international cases and awards provides a useful resource for academics and practitioners in the field of investment law. Transparency in investment arbitration has to seek viable compromises between the interests of the parties and the interest of the public. This volume contributes usefully to this discussion.