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Following the airplane attacks of September 11th, 2001 it is claimed that many Americans, dreading a repeat of these events, drove instead of flying, and that, consequently, there were extra car accidents, increasing the number of fatalities directly caused by the attacks by 1, 500. After the Madrid train bombings of March 11th, 2004, Spaniards, like Americans, avoided the attacked mode of travel, but no increase in car travel or fatal accidents resulted. Here we analyze behavioral concomitants of the July 7th 2005 bomb attacks on public transport in London. We find reduced underground train travel and an increase in rates of bicycling and, over the 6 months following the attacks, 214 additional bicyclist road casualties — a 15.4% increase. Nevertheless we found no detectable increase in car accidents. We conclude that, while fear caused by terrorism may initiate potentially dangerous behaviors, understanding the secondary effects of terrorism requires consideration of the environmental variables that enable fear to manifest in dangerous behaviors.
The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43–53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17–30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3–5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.
The inherence heuristic is too broad as a theoretical notion. The authors are at risk of applying their own heuristic in supporting itself. Nonetheless the article provides useful insight into the ways in which people overestimate the coherence and completeness of their understanding of the world.
Here we present the first results from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) which aims to investigate the physics of ∼140 radio-detected southern active Galaxies with z<0.02 through Integral Field Spectroscopy using the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS). This instrument provides data cubes of the central 38×25 arc sec. of the target galaxies in the waveband 340–710nm with the unusually high resolution of R=7000 in the red (530–710nm), and R=3000 in the blue (340–560nm). These data provide the morphology, kinematics and the excitation structure of the extended narrow-line region, probe relationships with the black hole characteristics and the host galaxy, measures host galaxy abundance gradients and the determination of nuclear abundances from the HII regions. From photoionisation modelling, we may determine the shape of the ionising spectrum of the AGN, discover whether AGN metallicities differ from nuclear abundances determined from HII regions, and probe grain destruction in the vicinity of the AGN. Here we present some preliminary results and modelling of both Seyfert galaxies observed as part of the survey.
I consider the general problem of category conjunctions in the light of Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B)'s quantum probability (QP) account of the conjunction fallacy. I argue that their account as presented cannot capture the “guppy effect” – the case in which a class is a better member of a conjunction A^B than it is of either A or B alone.
Distinct systems for representing concepts as prototypes, exemplars, and theories are closely integrated in the mind, and the notion of concept is required as a framework for exploring this integration. Eliminating the term “concept” from our theories will hinder rather than promote scientific progress.
The present study examined neuropsychological (NP) functioning and associated medical, neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and psychiatric findings in 389 nondemented males infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), and in 111 uninfected controls. Using a comprehensive NP test battery, we found increased rates of impairment at each successive stage of HIV infection. HIV-related NP impairment was generally mild, especially in the medically asymptomatic stage of infection, and most often affected attention, speed of information processing, and learning efficiency; this pattern is consistent with earliest involvement of subcortical or frontostriatal brain systems. NP impairment could not be explained on the bases of mood disturbance, recreational drug or alcohol use, or constitutional symptoms; by contrast, impairment in HIV-infected subjects was related to central brain atrophy on MRI, as well as to evidence of cellular immune activation and neurological abnormalities linked to the central nervous system. (JINS, 1995, 1, 231–251.)
Three issues are raised in this commentary. First, the mapping of semantic information into the different layers could be done in a more realistic way by using the Context layer to represent situational contexts. Second, a way to differentiate category membership information from other property information needs to be considered. Finally, the issue of modal knowledge is raised.
consideration of color alone can give a misleading impression of the three approaches to category coordination: the nativist, empiricist and culturalist models. empiricist models can benefit from a wider range of correlational information in the environment. also, all three approaches may explain a set of perceptual categories within the human repertoire. finally, a suggestion is offered for supplementing the naming game by varying the social status of agents.
Unless restricted to explicitly held, sharable beliefs that control and justify a person's behavior, the notion of a rule has little value as an explanatory concept. Similarity-based processing is a general characteristic of the mind-world interface where internal processes (including explicitly represented rules) act on the external world. The distinction between rules and similarity is therefore misconceived.
Carruthers’ thesis is undermined on the one hand by examples of integration of output from domain-specific modules that are independent of language, and on the other hand by examples of linguistically represented thoughts that are unable to integrate different domain-specific knowledge into a coherent whole. I propose a more traditional role for language in thought as providing the basis for the cultural development and transmission of domain-general abstract knowledge and reasoning skills.
In Dienes & Perner's analysis, implicitly represented
knowledge differs from explicitly represented knowledge only in the
attribution of properties to specific events and to self-awareness of
the knower. This commentary questions whether implicit knowledge should
be thought of as being represented in the same conceptual vocabulary;
rather, it may involve a quite different form of representation.
Atran's thesis has strong implications for the doctrine
of externalism in concepts (Fodor 1994). Beliefs about biological
kinds may involve a degree of deference to scientific categories,
but these categories are not truly scientific. They involve instead
a folk view of science itself.
Externalism cannot work as a theory of concepts without
explaining how we reidentify substances as being of the same kind.
Yet this process implies just the level of descriptive content to
which externalism seeks to deny a role in conceptual
This study sought to determine if human immunodeficiency
virus–type 1 (HIV-1) infected depressed men were
more likely to be neuropsychologically impaired than their
nondepressed counterparts. Subjects were 47 HIV-1 infected
men who met DSM–III–R criteria for current
major depressive disorder (MDD) and 47 HIV-1 infected nondepressed
male controls (M age = 34.2 years) equated on
HIV-1 disease severity, demographics, and drug use. The
psychiatric interview included the Structured Clinical
Inventory for the DSM–III–R, and Hamilton Rating
Scale for Depression. The neuropsychological battery included
tests covering 8 functional domains based on an expanded
Halstead-Reitan Battery. The medical assessment included
a history and physical examination, immunologic staging,
and evaluation of prescription and recreational drug use.
Prevalence of global neuropsychological impairment in the
two groups (depressed vs. control) did not differ
[53% vs. 38% respectively; χ2(1,
N = 94) = 2.11, p > .05]. While
syndromically depressed patients performed less well than
nondepressed individuals on memory tests [delayed
retention portions of the Story Memory Test: F(1,91)
= 5.34, p < .05; and Figure Memory Test: F(1,90)
= 4.16, p < .05], the majority of depressed
participants (64%) did not have clinically impaired memory.
No relationship between neuropsychological impairment and
severity of depression was observed. The results suggest
that, while HIV-1 infected men with major depression may
perform more poorly than nondepressed men on some aspects
of memory tasks, they are not more likely to evidence clinically
significant neurocognitive impairment. (JINS,
1997, 3, 457–463.)
To evaluate the risk of phlebitis associated with chlorhexidine-coated polyurethane catheters in peripheral veins.
A randomized, double-blinded trial comparing chlorhexidine-coated polyurethane catheters with uncoated polyurethane catheters.
A university hospital.
Adult medicine and surgery patients.
Certified registered nurse anesthetists or an infusion team consisting of nurses and physicians inserted the catheters. Catheter insertion sites were scored twice daily for evidence of phlebitis. At the time catheters were removed, a quantitative blood culture was performed, and catheters were sonicated for quantitative culture.
Of 221 evaluable catheters, phlebitis developed in 18 (17%) of 105 coated catheters, compared to 27 (23%) of 116 uncoated catheters (relative risk [RR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.43-1.26; P=.32). By survival analysis, chlorhexidine-coated catheters had a lower risk of phlebitis during the first 3 days (P=.06), but not when all catheters were considered in both patient groups (P=.31). In the absence of catheter colonization, the incidence of phlebitis was 21% (16/76) and 24% (20/86) for coated and uncoated catheters, respectively (P=.85), whereas in the presence of catheter colonization, the incidence of phlebitis was 14% (1/7) and 80% (4/5) for coated and uncoated catheters, respectively (RR, 0.18; CI95, 0.03-1.15; P=.07).
The risk of phlebitis in the presence of catheter colonization was 82% lower for chlorhexidinecoated polyurethane catheters compared to otherwise identical uncoated catheters.
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