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Clinical assessments are a primary method for ascertaining suicide risk, yet the language used across measures is inconsistent. The implications of these discrepancies for adolescent responding are unknown, which is troubling as multiple research areas (i.e. on culture, mental health language, and suicide communication) indicate individuals from varying sociodemographic backgrounds may communicate differently regarding mental health concerns. The aims of the current study are to investigate whether a geographically diverse sample of adolescents respond differently to directly and indirectly phrased suicide attempt questions (i.e. directly phrased includes the term ‘suicide’ and indirectly asks about suicidal behavior without using ‘suicide’), and to examine whether sociodemographic factors and history of mental health service usage relate to endorsement differences.
Participants were N = 5909 adolescents drawn from the Emergency Department Screening for Teens at Risk for Suicide multi-site study. The lifetime suicide attempt was assessed with two items from an adapted version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS; Posner et al., 2008): (1) a directly phrased question asking about ‘suicide attempts’ and (2) an indirectly phrased question providing the definition of an attempt.
An adolescent majority (83.7%) consistently reported no lifetime suicide attempt across items, 10.1% consistently reported one or more lifetime attempts across items, and 6.2% of adolescents responded discordantly to the items.
Multivariable models indicated multiple demographic and mental health service variables significantly predicted discordant responding, with a notable finding being that father/stepfather education level at or below high school education predicted endorsing only the direct question.
Background: A number of small intervention studies suggested that a Mediterranean diet (MedD) and physical activity can lower the risk for breast cancer. LIBRE is the first large multicenter RCT to test the effect of these lifestyle factors on the incidence of breast cancer in women at risk because of BRCA mutations(1). LIBRE also offers to unravel underlying mechanisms such as the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) for beneficial effects of such lifestyle interventions.
Methods: We examined the effect of the lifestyle intervention on the production of SCFA measured in feces by gas chromatography. From the ongoing LIBRE trial we included all complete datasets (171 women; mean age 44 ± 11 years). Both women with and without previous breast cancer diagnosis were recruited (diseased; non-diseased). The participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) trained for MedD and physical activity, and a usual care control group (CG). Adherence to the MedD was assessed at baseline and after 3 months (V1) using the validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the EPIC food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Results: At baseline there was no difference in SCFA levels between the groups. In the IG the MEDAS score increased substantially by 2.5 points (p < 0.001), in the CG only mildly by 0.4 points (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the intake of fibers increased solely in the IG. In the course of the study the amount of caproic acid decreased in the control group (p < 0.001). At V1 non-diseased women showed higher amounts of acetic acid (p = 0.042), n-butyric acid (p = 0.023), n-valeric acid (p = 0.018) and iso-valeric acid (p = 0.031). There were several correlations between the intake of different fibers and fecal SCFA. For example, the sum of poly- and oligosaccharides correlated with acetic acid (p = 0.001; r = 0.316), propionic acid (p = 0.034; r = 0,251), n-butyric acid (p = 0.010; r = 0.316) and iso-valeric acid (p = 0.012; r = 0.306). There was no correlation between the MEDAS and SCFA.
Discussion: A lifestyle change towards a MedD and increased physical activity did not change the levels of SCFA in feces, although an increase of fiber intake was documented in the IG. To further analyze SCFA metabolism in this target population, gut microbiota composition and function (metabolites) are currently analyzed.
There is discontent and turnover among faculty at US academic health centers because of the challenges in balancing clinical, research, teaching, and work–life responsibilities in the current healthcare environment. One potential strategy to improve faculty satisfaction and limit turnover is through faculty mentoring programs.
A Mentor Leadership Council was formed to design and implement an institution-wide faculty mentoring program across all colleges at an academic health center. The authors conducted an experimental study of the impact of the mentoring program using pre-intervention (2011) and 6-year (2017) post-intervention faculty surveys that measured the long-term effectiveness of the program.
The percent of faculty who responded to the surveys was 45.9% (656/1428) in 2011 and 40.2% (706/1756) in 2017. For faculty below the rank of full professor, percent of faculty with a mentor (45.3% vs. 67.1%, P < 0.001), familiarity with promotion criteria (81.7% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.001), and satisfaction with department’s support of career (75.6% vs. 84.7%, P = 0.002) improved. The percent of full professors serving as mentors also increased from 50.3% in 2011 to 68.0% in 2017 (P = 0.002). However, the percent of non-retiring faculty considering leaving the institution over the next 2 years increased from 18.8% in 2011 to 24.3% in 2017 (P = 0.02).
Implementation of an institution-wide faculty mentoring program significantly improved metrics of career development and faculty satisfaction but was not associated with a reduction in the percent of faculty considering leaving the institution. This suggests the need for additional efforts to identify and limit factors driving faculty turnover.
Routine psychiatric assessments tailored to older patients are often insufficient to identify the complexity of presentation in younger patients with dementia. Significant overlap between psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disease means that high rates of prior incorrect psychiatric diagnosis are common. Long delays to diagnosis, misdiagnosis and lack of knowledge from professionals are key concerns. No specific practice guidelines exist for diagnosis of young-onset dementia (YOD).
The review evaluates the current evidence about best practice in diagnosis to guide thorough assessment of the complex presentations of YOD with a view to upskilling professionals in the field.
A comprehensive search of the literature adopting a scoping review methodology was conducted regarding essential elements of diagnosis in YOD, over and above those in current diagnostic criteria for disease subtypes. This methodology was chosen because research in this area is sparse and not amenable to a traditional systematic review.
The quality of evidence identified is variable with the majority provided from expert opinion and evidence is lacking on some topics. Evidence appears weighted towards diagnosis in frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes and young-onset Alzheimer's disease.
The literature demonstrates that a clinically rigorous and systematic approach is necessary in order to avoid mis- or underdiagnosis for younger people. The advent of new disease-modifying treatments necessitates clinicians in the field to improve knowledge of new imaging techniques and genetics, with the goal of improving training and practice, and highlights the need for quality indicators and alignment of diagnostic procedures across clinical settings.
Mental health professionals form an important component of the response teams currently working in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to treat what is historically the second-largest Ebola outbreak. They provide psychological treatment to patients under extraordinary conditions, helping them cope with anxiety and the daily death of other patients.
Evaluate the feasibility, fidelity and preliminary efficacy of Camp NERF to prevent unhealthy weight gain and promote healthy behaviours in children during the summer.
Camp NERF was an 8-week, multicomponent, theory-based programme coupled with the US Department of Agriculture’s Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary-school sites were randomized to one of three treatment groups: (i) Active Control (non-nutrition, -physical activity (PA), -mental health); (ii) Standard Care (nutrition and PA); or (iii) Enhanced Care (nutrition and PA, plus cognitive behavioural techniques) programming. Efficacy was determined by assessing mean change by group in child outcomes using hierarchical linear regression models.
Low-income, urban neighbourhoods in Columbus, OH, USA.
Economically disadvantaged, racial minority children of elementary school age (kindergarten–5th grade).
Eighty-seven child–caregiver dyads consented; eighty-one completed pre- and post-intervention assessments resulting in a 93·10 % retention rate. Delivery of the intended lesson occurred 79–90 % of the time. Of the children, 56·98 % (n 49) were female; 89·53 % (n 77) were Black. Overall mean change in BMI Z-score from baseline to post-intervention was −0·03 (se 0·05); change in BMI Z-score did not differ significantly between treatment group. Change in nutrition, PA, mental health or psychosocial outcomes did not differ between groups.
Results from the current study demonstrate feasibility and fidelity, yet no intervention effect of Camp NERF. Instead, findings suggest that participation in structured programming of any type (health behaviour-related or not) may prevent unhealthy summer weight gain. Additional studies are needed to confirm findings. Results have implications for child nutrition policy addressing the issue of summer health.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) is increasingly prevalent. We sought to determine the clinical outcomes associated with community-onset ESC-resistant (ESC-R) EB urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system.
Retrospective cohort study.
All patients presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) or outpatient practices with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included. Exposed patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Unexposed patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched to exposed subjects 1:1 on study year. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ESC-R EB UTI and the outcomes of clinical failure and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT).
A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, with 151 exposed and unexposed. On multivariable analyses, UTI due to an ESC-R EB was significantly associated with clinical failure (odds ratio [OR], 7.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16–15.82; P<.01). Other independent risk factors for clinical failure included infection with Citrobacter spp and need for hemodialysis. UTI due to an ESC-R EB was also significantly associated with IIAT (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.64–7.33; P<.01).
Community-onset UTI due to an ESC-R EB organism is significantly associated with clinical failure, which may be due in part to IIAT. Further studies are needed to determine which patients in the community are at high risk for drug-resistant infection to help inform prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic prescribing for ESC-R EB.
Falls prevention strategies can only be effective in reducing falls amongst older people if they are adopted and enacted in their daily lives. There is limited evidence identifying what older people in residential aged care (RAC) homes understand about falls and falls prevention, or what may limit or enable their adoption of strategies. This study was conducted in two countries and explored older people's knowledge and awareness of falls and their preferences, opportunities and motivation to undertake falls prevention strategies. A cross-sectional survey was administered to participants (N = 70) aged 65 years and over, living in six RAC homes in Perth, Australia and six RAC homes in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. Participants had limited knowledge about intrinsic falls risk factors and strategies to address these and frequently expressed self-blame regarding falling. Almost all (N = 67, 95.7%) participants felt highly motivated to maintain their current functional mobility and independence in everyday tasks. Key preferences for receiving falls prevention messages favoured a positive approach promoting wellness and independence (N = 41, 58.6%) via pictorial posters or brochures (N = 37, 52.9%) and small group discussions preferably with demonstrations (N = 18, 25.7%). Findings from this study may assist organisations and staff to more effectively engage with older people living in RAC about falls prevention and design targeted resources to address the motivations and preferences of this population.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI) of dementia are important determinants of caregiver burden, while caregiver coping styles and competences can relieve burden. Caregivers differ in coping with the demands made on them and in experienced burden. What changes in caregivers explain recovery from burden, and which caregiver characteristics predict recovery from burden over time, and does treatment make a difference?
This study into recovery from burden was a secondary analysis of data collected in a formerly conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the integrated reactivation and rehabilitation (IRR) programme in a psychiatric-skilled nursing home, compared to usual care (UC; i.e. day care, assisted living arrangements, and nursing home wards). For this secondary analysis, longitudinal data on persons with dementia and caregivers were used from baseline (T1), end of treatment (T2), and at nine months (T3).
Caregivers with an improved sense of competence (SCS) who care for persons with dementia with a decreased severity of NPI have the highest chance of recovering from burden (CSI). Caregivers with a tendency to feel involved with others and sympathize with others (affiliation, ICL-R) have a slightly lower probability of improvement with respect to their sense of competence in the short term. The number of improved caregivers was higher in IRR than UC.
Recovery depends on both an improved sense of competence and a decreased severity of NPI. Combined interventions that address both NPI and focus on enhancing caregiver's sense of competence have added value when it comes to decreasing caregiver burden.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach.
This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility.
Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology.
CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution.
Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%–6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%–6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%–11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5–1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9–2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility.
A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection.
We describe in this work the BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups of the solar neighborhood, and summarize the results that it generated. These include the discovery of the 2MASS J01033563–5515561 (AB)b and 2MASS J02192210–3925225 B young companions near the deuterium-burning limit as well as 44 new low-mass stars and 69 new brown dwarfs with a spectroscopically confirmed low gravity. Among those, ~20 have estimated masses within the planetary regime, one is a new L4 γ bona fide member of AB Doradus, three are TW Hydrae candidates with later spectral types (L1–L4) than all of its previously known members and six are among the first contenders for low-gravity ≥ L5 β/γ brown dwarfs, reminiscent of WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, PSO J318.5338–22.8603 and VHS J125601.92–125723.9 b. Finally, we describe a future version of this survey, BASS-Ultracool, that will specifically target ≥ L5 candidate members of young moving groups. First experimentations in designing the survey have already led to the discovery of a new T dwarf bona fide member of AB Doradus, as well as the serendipitous discoveries of an L9 subdwarf and an L5 + T5 brown dwarf binary.
To evaluate the quality of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing and discuss the advantages of microbiological surveillance testing of these endoscopes.
Retrospective analysis of the results of endoscope sampling performed from October 1, 2006, through December 31, 2014, in a gastrointestinal endoscopy unit of a teaching hospital equipped with 89 endoscopes and 3 automated endoscope reprocessors, with an endoscopy quality assurance program in place. The compliance rate was defined as the proportion of the results classified at target or alert levels according to the French guidelines. A multivariate analysis (logistic regression) was used to identify the parameters influencing compliance.
A total of 846 samples were taken. The overall compliance rate was 86% and differed significantly depending on the sampling context (scheduled or not scheduled), the type of endoscope, and the season. No other parameter was associated with compliance. A total of 118 samples carried indicator microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida sp.
The systematic use of an automated endoscope reprocessor does not provide totally satisfactory compliance. Microbiological surveillance is indispensable to monitor reprocessing, reinforce good practices (endoscopes, reprocessing units), and detect endoscopes requiring early technical maintenance.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1017–1023
According to the World Health Organization guidelines, field tests, in the context of a bid for the supply of alcohol-based hand rubs, should take into account climatic region, test period, products already in use, and type of use (hygienic or surgical) when assessing tolerance. This laborious method is often contested.
To conduct a post hoc analysis of the data of a large bid, including 5 factors, to validate the relevance of their inclusion.
For the purposes of the bid, products were compared in terms of the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria (appearance, intactness, moisture content, sensation) during product testing and were separated into groups on the basis of the studied factors. The post hoc analysis method included (1) comparison of the mean before-and-after difference based on the self-evaluation of the skin with the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria, between climatic regions, periods, products in use, test product, and the type of use; (2) generalized linear models, taking into account all studied factors.
The analysis included data for 1,925 pairs of professionals. The means of the differences observed were independently and significantly associated with the test period (P<.001), the hygienic or surgical use (P=.010 to .041, not significant for appearance), the product already in use (significant for appearance P=.021), and the test product (P<.001). The association with climatic region was found to be significant only in the nonadjusted analysis.
The type of use, the test period, and the product in use should be taken into account when designing field tests of alcohol-based hand rubs.