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The 2020 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) for the Secondary Prevention of Stroke includes current evidence-based recommendations and expert opinions intended for use by clinicians across a broad range of settings. They provide guidance for the prevention of ischemic stroke recurrence through the identification and management of modifiable vascular risk factors. Recommendations address triage, diagnostic testing, lifestyle behaviors, vaping, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, other cardiac conditions, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies, and carotid and vertebral artery disease. This update of the previous 2017 guideline contains several new or revised recommendations. Recommendations regarding triage and initial assessment of acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have been simplified, and selected aspects of the etiological stroke workup are revised. Updated treatment recommendations based on new evidence have been made for dual antiplatelet therapy for TIA and minor stroke; anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation; embolic strokes of undetermined source; low-density lipoprotein lowering; hypertriglyceridemia; diabetes treatment; and patent foramen ovale management. A new section has been added to provide practical guidance regarding temporary interruption of antithrombotic therapy for surgical procedures. Cancer-associated ischemic stroke is addressed. A section on virtual care delivery of secondary stroke prevention services in included to highlight a shifting paradigm of care delivery made more urgent by the global pandemic. In addition, where appropriate, sex differences as they pertain to treatments have been addressed. The CSBPR include supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence into practice and performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of recommendations.
Objectives: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces the risk of sudden death in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, but their novelty and cost may represent barriers to utilization. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of age, gender, place of residence, and socioeconomic status on rates of ICD implantation for the primary prevention of death.
Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving the entire province of Ontario, Canada. Patients were eligible if they had survived following hospitalization for heart failure from 1 January 1993, to 31 March 2004, and previously sustained an acute coronary syndrome within 5 years. Patients with an existing ICD or a documented history of cardiac arrest were excluded, as were patients who died in the hospital. Primary outcome was ICD implantation.
Results: We identified 48,426 patients hospitalized for heart failure who survived to hospital discharge. Of these, 440 received an ICD, with a gradual 30-fold increase in implantation rates over the study period (.12–3.9 percent). ICD recipients were more likely to be men (odds ratio [OR] = 4.14; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 3.24–5.30), younger than 75 years of age (OR = 3.19; 95 percent CI, 2.57–3.96), reside in a metropolitan area (OR = 1.42; 95 percent CI, 1.04–1.9), and live in a higher socioeconomic neighborhood (OR = 1.32; 95 percent CI, 1.08–1.61).
Conclusions: Among patients with heart failure and a previous myocardial infarction, ICD use is increasing in Ontario. However, the application of this technology is characterized by major sociodemographic inequities. The causes and consequences of the pronounced age and gender discrepancies, in particular, warrant further investigation.
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