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There are indications that problematic alcohol use may negatively impact the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most studies on alcohol use and adverse MDD outcomes are conducted amongst MDD populations with (severe) alcohol use disorder in psychiatric treatment settings. Therefore, it remains unclear whether these results can be generalised to the general population. In light of this, we examined the longitudinal relationship between alcohol use and MDD persistence after a 3-year follow-up amongst people with MDD from the general population.
Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a psychiatric epidemiological prospective study comprising four waves amongst the adult Dutch general population (n = 6.646). The study sample (n = 642) consisted of those with 12-month MDD who participated at the follow-up wave. The outcome was 12-month MDD persistence after the 3-year follow-up, which was assessed via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Weekly alcohol consumption was operationalised as non-drinking (0 drinks), low-risk drinking (⩽7 drinks; reference), at-risk drinking (women 8–13 drinks, men 8–20 drinks) and high-risk drinking (women ⩾14, men ⩾21 drinks). We performed univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, which were adjusted for various socio-demographic and health-related factors.
The majority (67.4%) of the MDD sample were female, while the mean age was 47.1 years. Amongst these, 23.8% were non-drinkers, 52.0% were low-risk drinkers and 14.3% and 9.4% were at-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively. Around one-quarter of the sample (23.6%) met the criteria for a persistent MDD after 3-year follow-up. No statistically significant association was found between alcohol use and MDD persistence, either for the crude model or the adjusted models. In comparison to low-risk drinking, the full adjusted model showed no statistically significant associations between MDD persistence and non-drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, p = 0.620), at-risk drinking (OR = 1.25, p = 0.423), or high-risk drinking (OR = 0.74, p = 0.501).
Contrary to our expectations, our findings showed that alcohol use was not a predictor of MDD persistence after 3-year follow-up amongst people with MDD from the general population.
Adding short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to antidepressants increases treatment efficacy, but it is unclear which patients benefit specifically. This study examined efficacy moderators of combined treatment (STPP + antidepressants) v. antidepressants for adults with depression.
For this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017056029), we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library from inception to 1 January 2022. We included randomized clinical trials comparing combined treatment (antidepressants + individual outpatient STPP) v. antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of depression in adults. Individual participant data were requested and analyzed combinedly using mixed-effects models (adding Cochrane risk of bias items as covariates) and an exploratory machine learning technique. The primary outcome was post-treatment depression symptom level.
Data were obtained for all seven trials identified (100%, n = 482, combined: n = 238, antidepressants: n = 244). Adding STPP to antidepressants was more efficacious for patients with high rather than low baseline depression levels [B = −0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.61 to −0.37, p < 0.0001] and for patients with a depressive episode duration of >2 years rather than <1 year (B = −0.68, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.05, p = 0.03) and than 1–2 years (B = −0.86, 95% CI −1.66 to −0.06, p = 0.04). Heterogeneity was low. Effects were replicated in analyses controlling for risk of bias.
To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines moderators across trials assessing the addition of STPP to antidepressants. These findings need validation but suggest that depression severity and episode duration are factors to consider when adding STPP to antidepressants and might contribute to personalizing treatment selection for depression.
Cognitive behaviour therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) is an effective treatment for non-underweight patients with eating disorders. Its efficacy and effectiveness is investigated mostly among transdiagnostic samples and remains unknown for binge eating disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess several treatment outcome predictors and to compare effectiveness of CBT-E among adult out-patients with bulimia nervosa (n=370), binge eating disorder (n=113), and those with a restrictive food pattern diagnosed with other specified feeding and eating disorders (n=139). Effectiveness of CBT-E was assessed in routine clinical practice in a specialised eating disorders centre. Eating disorder pathology was measured with the EDEQ pre- and post-treatment, and at 20 weeks follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses with fixed effect were performed to compare treatment outcome among the eating disorder groups. Several predictors of treatment completion and outcome were examined with a regression analysis. No predictors for drop-out were found, except the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. Eating disorder pathology decreased among all groups with effect sizes between 1.43 and 1.70 on the EDE-Q total score. There were no differences in remission rates between the three groups at end of treatment or at follow-up. Eating disorder severity at baseline affected treatment response. The results can be generalised to other specialised treatment centres. No subgroup of patients differentially benefited from CBT-E supporting the transdiagnostic perspective for the treatment of eating disorders. Longer-term follow-up data are necessary to measure persistence of treatment benefits.
Key learning aims
(1) What is the effectiveness of CBT-E among patients suffering from binge eating disorder?
(2) Does any subgroup of patients suffering from an eating disorder differentially benefit from CBT-E?
Two types of mentalization-based treatment (MBT), day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive outpatient MBT (MBT-IOP), have been shown to be effective in treating patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study evaluated trajectories of change in a multi-site trial of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP at 36 months after the start of treatment.
All 114 patients (MBT-DH n = 70, MBT-IOP n = 44) from the original multicentre trial were assessed at 24, 30 and 36 months after the start of treatment. The primary outcome was symptom severity measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory. Secondary outcome measures included borderline symptomatology, personality and interpersonal functioning, quality of life and self-harm. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling and the intention-to-treat principle.
Patients in both MBT-DH and MBT-IOP maintained the substantial improvements made during the intensive treatment phase and showed further gains during follow-up. Across both conditions, 83% of patients improved in terms of symptom severity, and 97% improved on borderline symptomatology. No significant differences were found between MBT-DH and MBT-IOP at 36 months after the start of treatment. However, trajectories of change were different. Whereas patients in MBT-DH showed greater improvement during the intensive treatment phase, patients in MBT-IOP showed greater continuing improvement during follow-up.
Patients in both conditions showed similar large improvements over the course of 36 months, despite large differences in treatment intensity. MBT-DH and MBT-IOP were associated with different trajectories of change. Cost-effectiveness considerations and predictors of differential treatment outcome may further inform optimal treatment selection.
Reviews of the relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy (psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy) for depression have yielded contradicting conclusions. This may be explained by the clinical heterogeneity of the studies reviewed.
To conduct a meta-analysis with an acceptable level of homogeneity in order to investigate the relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy in the acute treatment of depression.
A systematic search was performed for RCTs published between 1980 and 2005 comparing psychotherapy and combined therapy in adult psychiatric outpatients with non-psychotic unipolar major depressive disorder. The studies were classified according to the chronicity and severity of the depression. Data were pooled by means of meta-analysis and statistical tests were conducted to measure heterogeneity.
The meta-analysis included seven studies looking at a total of 903 patients. None of the heterogeneity tests established significance. This indicates a lack of evidence for the heterogeneity of the results. The dropout rates did not differ significantly between the two treatment modalities (25% in combined therapy and 24% in psychotherapy, p = 0.77). At treatment termination, the intention-to-treat remission rate for combined therapy (46%) was better than for psychotherapy (34%) (p = 0.0007); Relative Risk 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12–1.56), Odds Ratio 1.59 (95% CI: 1.22–2.09). In moderate depression, the difference between the remission rate for combined therapy and psychotherapy was statistically significant (47% compared to 34% respectively, p = 0.001). This was not the case in mild major depression (42% compared to 37% respectively, p = 0.29). The difference was also statistically significant in chronic major depression (48% compared to 32%, p < 0.001), but not in non-chronic major depression (43% compared to 37%, p = 0.22). On a more specific level, no differences were found in the remission rates for the treatment modalities in mild or moderate non-chronic depression. Combined therapy led to significantly better results than psychotherapy in moderate chronic depression only (48% compared to 32%, p < 0.001).
In the acute treatment of adult psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder, patient compliance with combined therapy matches compliance with psychotherapy alone. Combined therapy is more efficacious than psychotherapy alone. However, these results depend on severity and chronicity. Combined therapy outperformed psychotherapy in moderate chronic depression only. No differences were found in mild and moderate non-chronic depression. No data were found for mild chronic depression and for severe depression.
Time-limited psychotherapy for depression is effective. However, comorbid personality disorders affect therapy outcomes negatively. Studies of follow-up effects and results relating to the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality are scarce.
To determine the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality on outcomes after cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) for depression.
This study draws on data from a previously published randomised clinical trial contrasting SPSP and CBT for depression (both 16 sessions). We compared the effectiveness of these psychotherapies for patients with and without personality disorder (n = 196). The primary measure was depression outcome; the secondary measurements were interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Collected data were analysed using multilevel analysis. Trial registration: ISRCTN31263312 (http://www.controlled-trials.com).
Although participants with and without comorbid personality disorder improved at treatment termination (d = 1.04, 95% CI 0.77–1.31 and d = 1.36, 95% CI 0.97–1.76, respectively) and at follow-up (d = 1.15, 95% CI 0.87–1.43 and d = 2.12, 95% CI 1.65–2.59 respectively), personality disorder had a negative effect on depression outcome at both measurement points (P < 0.05). A similar negative effect on interpersonal functioning was no longer apparent at follow-up. Comorbid personality disorder had no influence on social functioning or quality of life outcomes, irrespective of treatment modality.
CBT and SPSP contribute to the improvement of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed patients with and without comorbid personality disorder. Both treatments are an effective first step in a stepped care approach, but – given remaining levels of depression in patients with personality disorder – they are probably inadequate for large numbers of patients with this comorbidity.
Two types of mentalisation-based treatment (MBT) have been developed and empirically evaluated for borderline personality disorder (BPD): day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive out-patient MBT (MBT-IOP). No trial has yet compared their efficacy.
To compare the efficacy of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP 18 months after start of treatment. MBT-DH was hypothesised to be superior to MBT-IOP because of its higher treatment intensity.
In a multicentre randomised controlled trial (Nederlands Trial Register: NTR2292) conducted at three sites in the Netherlands, patients with BPD were randomly assigned to MBT-DH (n = 70) or MBT-IOP (n = 44). The primary outcome was symptom severity (Brief Symptom Inventory). Secondary outcome measures included borderline symptomatology, personality functioning, interpersonal functioning, quality of life and self-harm. Patients were assessed every 6 months from baseline to 18 months after start of treatment. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling based on intention-to-treat principles.
Significant improvements were found on all outcome measures, with moderate to very large effect sizes for both groups. MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure, but MBT-DH showed a clear tendency towards superiority on secondary outcomes.
Although MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure despite its greater treatment intensity, MBT-DH showed a tendency to be more effective on secondary outcomes, particularly in terms of relational functioning. Patients receiving MBT-DH and MBT-IOP, thus, seem to follow different trajectories of change, which may have important implications for clinical decision-making. Longer-term follow-up and cost-effectiveness considerations may ultimately determine the optimal intensity of specialised treatments such as MBT for patients with BPD.
As depression has a recurrent course, relapse and recurrence prevention is essential.
In our randomised controlled trial (registered with the Nederlands trial register, identifier: NTR1907), we found that adding preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) to maintenance antidepressants (PCT+AD) yielded substantial protective effects versus antidepressants only in individuals with recurrent depression. Antidepressants were not superior to PCT while tapering antidepressants (PCT/−AD). To inform decision-makers on treatment allocation, we present the corresponding cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact.
Data were analysed (n = 289) using a societal perspective with 24-months of follow-up, with depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as health outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated and cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were derived to provide information about cost-effectiveness. The budget impact was examined with a health economic simulation model.
Mean total costs over 24 months were €6814, €10 264 and €13 282 for AD+PCT, antidepressants only and PCT/−AD, respectively. Compared with antidepressants only, PCT+AD resulted in significant improvements in depression-free days but not QALYs. Health gains did not significantly favour antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD. High probabilities were found that PCT+AD versus antidepressants only and antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD were dominant with low willingness-to-pay thresholds. The budget impact analysis showed decreased societal costs for PCT+AD versus antidepressants only and for antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD.
Adding PCT to antidepressants is cost-effective over 24 months and PCT with guided tapering of antidepressants in long-term users might result in extra costs. Future studies examining costs and effects of antidepressants versus psychological interventions over a longer period may identify a break-even point where PCT/−AD will become cost-effective.
Declaration of interest
C.L.H.B. is co-editor of PLOS One and receives no honorarium for this role. She is also co-developer of the Dutch multidisciplinary clinical guideline for anxiety and depression, for which she receives no remuneration. She is a member of the scientific advisory board of the National Insure Institute, for which she receives an honorarium, although this role has no direct relation to this study. C.L.H.B. has presented keynote addresses at conferences, such as the European Psychiatry Association and the European Conference Association, for which she sometimes receives an honorarium. She has presented clinical training workshops, some including a fee. She receives royalties from her books and co-edited books and she developed preventive cognitive therapy on the basis of the cognitive model of A. T. Beck. W.A.N. has received grants from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development and the European Union and honoraria and speakers' fees from Lundbeck and Aristo Pharma, and has served as a consultant for Daleco Pharma.
Day hospital mentalization-based treatment (MBT-DH) is a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) but its evidence base is still limited. This multi-site randomized trial compared the efficacy of MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service v. specialist treatment as usual (S-TAU) tailored to the individual needs of patients, and offered by a well-established treatment service.
Two mental healthcare institutes in The Netherlands participated in the study. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for BPD and had a score of ⩾20 on the borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI) were randomly allocated to MBT-DH (N = 54) or S-TAU (N = 41). The primary outcome variable was the total score on the BPDSI. Secondary outcome variables included symptom severity, quality of life, and interpersonal functioning. Data were collected at baseline and every 6 months until 18-month follow-up, and were analyzed using multilevel analyses based on intention-to-treat principles.
Both treatments were associated with significant improvements in all outcome variables. MBT-DH was not superior to S-TAU on any outcome variable. MBT-DH was associated with higher acceptability in BPD patients compared v. S-TAU, reflected in significantly higher early drop-out rates in S-TAU (34%) v. MBT-DH (9%).
MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service is as effective as specialist TAU in The Netherlands in the treatment of BPD at 18-month follow-up. Further research is needed to investigate treatment outcomes in the longer term and the cost-effectiveness of these treatments.
Tridiphane [2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)oxirane] is a potent synergist of atrazine for postemergence control of weeds such as giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm. ♯ SETFA) and large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. ♯ DIGSA]. We determined whether: a) tridiphane could syngergize the activity of other herbicides known to be detoxified via enzymatic conjugation to glutathione, and b) differential toxicities of the synergized herbicides could provide control of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. ♯ PANMI) in corn (Zea mays L. “PAG SXIII”). Four herbicides were used in this study: EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate), atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine], CDAA (N-N-diallyl-2-chloroacetamide), and alachlor [2-chloro-2’,6’-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide]. Herbicides and herbicide-synergist combinations were applied postemergence. In corn, tridiphane synergized the activity of EPTC at 2 and 4 kg ai/ha, causing 22 to 25% growth reduction. Atrazine was ineffective and CDAA only slightly effective in combination with tridiphane in causing growth reduction. However, alachlor was markedly synergized by tridiphane at both 2 and 4 kg ai/ha, resulting in 36 to 54% growth reduction compared with plants treated with herbicides alone. Proso millet followed a similar trend to corn: EPTC and alachlor were effectively synergized by tridiphane, while atrazine and CDAA were ineffective. Importantly, however, the rates of herbicide used for proso millet control were much lower than those used for corn. Our data suggest that tridiphane used in combination with EPTC or alachlor could provide improved control of proso millet in corn.
A growth room study was conducted to evaluate the effect that timing of application has on the distribution of several herbicides in quackgrass. Uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose and the radiolabeled herbicides glyphosate, sethoxydim, the butyl ester of fluazifop, and the methyl ester of haloxyfop were applied to quackgrass (ranging from the three- to eight-leaf stage) propagated from six-bud rhizome segments. Five days after treatment the plants were harvested, lyophilized, and later sectioned, mapped, and oxidized in preparation for 14C quantification. In most cases, slightly more 14C was translocated to the shoots than to the rhizomes. 14C translocation to the rhizomes was similar at all growth stages. The 14C accumulating in the rhizomes exhibited a nonuniform distribution pattern with more 14C in the distal areas of new rhizomes than in the other areas of the rhizome system. Plants treated with haloxyfop had a more uniform distribution of 14C along their rhizomes than did those treated with fluazifop or sethoxydim.
A technique based on the relationship between leaf area index (LAI) and the transmittance of direct sunlight was developed for the in situ study of competition for light between plant species. Field studies were conducted in 1984 and 1985 using monocultures and mixtures of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. # SINAR), and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. # CHEAL). LAI estimated nondestructively by this method agreed closely with LAI determined by conventional destructive techniques. Light measurements at several heights in the canopy were used to determine the vertical distribution of canopy leaf area. Combining this information with species heights allowed the separation of the canopy LAI into individual species LAI, from which light competition could be estimated by calculating the sunlit LAI of each species. The technique permits many detailed measurements in the same canopy throughout the growing season. The light sensor required is not costly and is simple to operate and to maintain.
Field experiments were conducted during 1981 and 1982 in Ontario, Canada, on the effects of quackgrass [Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. # AGRRE] interference in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and the usefulness of infrared thermometry in predicting critical periods of weed interference. Soybean seed yield, dry weight, number of leaves, height, and number of pods were substantially reduced due to quackgrass interference. High levels of P and K fertility did not overcome the quackgrass interference. Part of the competitive effects of quackgrass was alleviated by irrigation. Infrared thermometry successfully detected the first occurrence of quackgrass-induced stress during the early soybean flowering stage, when the quackgrass was in the four-leaf gtowth stage. This coincided with the onset of the first significant soybean yield loss. No additional soybean yield loss occurred after quackgrass reached the five-leaf growth stage. There was an inverse relation between accumulated stress degree days and soybean yield reductions due to quackgrass interference. The use of the stress degree day concept may be a valuable tool in predicting soybean yield losses due to quackgrass interference.
Suspected triazine resistant Pennsylvania smartweed plants were discovered near Holy Cross, Dubuque County, IA. Subsequent variable chlorophyll a fluorescence assays confirmed these selections to be triazine resistant. This is the first reported evidence of s-triazine resistance in Pennsylvania smartweed.
The story of agriculture is the story of weed interference. After millennia of weed control we still have weeds. This situation has led many growers to observe that “the weeds always win.” One of the most important reasons weeds are so successful is their biodiversity. Biodiversity is an inevitable consequence of the struggle an individual weed species undergoes in the presence of neighbors, and by occupying a physical space in an agroecosystem. Weeds have evolved in response to cropping system practices by adapting and occupying niches left available in agroecosystems. Forces created by our cropping practices over evolutionary time have led to the weed diversity we observe today. Diversity underlies weed management in several important ways. A plant experiences diversity among its neighbors in at least five different ways. Weeds have adapted to selection in agroecosystems in several ways: (1) genetic variants within a species; (2) somatic polymorphism of plant parts; (3) success in diverse habitat microsites; (4) temporal adaptations within the community; and (5) floristic diversity of a community at higher levels than the species. Herein, weed diversity is discussed in this broader context, in terms of population behaviors that emerge as a consequence of the activities of individual components at lower levels of organization. Diversity is also discussed in terms of its implications for weed management. The potential exists to develop management strategies based on differences in weed and crop diversity. These strategies might be developed by characterization of weedy genetic and phenotypic diversity; enhancement of crop, cropping system, and agroecosystem diversity; and characterization of the spatial distribution of weed populations.
Field experiments, conducted from 1991 to 1994, generated information on weed seedbank emergence for 22 site-years from Ohio to Colorado and Minnesota to Missouri. Early spring seedbank densities were estimated through direct extraction of viable seeds from soil cores. Emerged seedlings were recorded periodically, as were daily values for air and soil temperature, and precipitation. Percentages of weed seedbanks that emerged as seedlings were calculated from seedbank and seedling data for each species, and relationships between seedbank emergence and microclimatic variables were sought. Fifteen species were found in 3 or more site-years. Average emergence percentages (and coefficients of variation) of these species were as follows: giant foxtail, 31.2 (84%); velvetleaf, 28.2 (66); kochia, 25.7 (79); Pennsylvania smartweed, 25.1 (65); common purslane, 15.4 (135); common ragweed, 15.0 (110); green foxtail, 8.5 (72); wild proso millet, 6.6 (104); hairy nightshade, 5.2 (62); common sunflower, 5.0 (26); yellow foxtail, 3.4 (67); pigweed species, 3.3 (103); common lambsquarters, 2.7 (111); wild buckwheat, 2.5 (63), and prostrate knotweed, 0.6 (79). Variation among site-years, for some species, could be attributed to microclimate variables thought to induce secondary dormancy in spring. For example, total seasonal emergence percentage of giant foxtail was related positively to the 1st date at which average daily soil temperature at 5 to 10 cm soil depth reached 16 C. Thus, if soil warmed before mid April, secondary dormancy was induced and few seedlings emerged, whereas many seedlings emerged if soil remained cool until June.
Changes in weed seedbank composition are often monitored by removing seeds from soil samples. One extraction method accomplishes this by creating a slurry of soil and a concentrated inorganic salt solution. Centrifugation is then used to separate constituents of differing densities. We have found that centrifugation of giant foxtail seeds in 3.2 M potassium carbonate solution as conducted in a centrifugation/flotation extraction method can reduce viability as measured by germination and tetrazolium tests. In one experiment, centrifugation/flotation separation reduced germination of giant foxtail seeds from 94 to 52%. The likely cause of seed damage was the high pH of the potassium carbonate solution in conjunction with the increased hydrostatic pressure due to centrifugation. While centrifugation affected quantitative measures of seed viability, it did not alter qualitative viability estimates using a pressure test.
A growth cabinet study was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on the distribution of several herbicides in quackgrass. Uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose and the radiolabeled herbicides glyphosate, sethoxydim, cloproxydim, the butyl ester of fluazifop, the methyl ester of haloxyfop, and the ethyl ester of quizalofop were applied to quackgrass grown at three day / night temperature regimes (10/5, 20/15, and 30/25 C). Seven days after treatment the plants were harvested, lyophilized, and later sectioned, mapped, and oxidized in preparation for 14C quantification. Quackgrass rhizome growth was more vigorous at 20/15 than 30/25 or 10/5 C. of the herbicides tested, haloxyfop was the most inhibitory to rhizome growth. Temperature increases from 10/5 to 20/15 or from 20/15 to 30/25 C resulted in more translocation to shoots. Increasing temperature had various effects on translocation to rhizomes depending on the chemical applied. At all three temperature regimes, more 14C was recovered from distal than basal buds in plants treated with 14C-sethoxydim. In contrast, at all three temperature regimes, similar amounts of 14C were recovered from the distal and basal buds of plants treated with 14-C-sucrose.