To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The direct carbonate procedure for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of submilligram samples of biogenic carbonate without graphitization is becoming widely used in a variety of studies. We compare the results of 153 paired direct carbonate and standard graphite 14C determinations on single specimens of an assortment of biogenic carbonates. A reduced major axis regression shows a strong relationship between direct carbonate and graphite percent Modern Carbon (pMC) values (m = 0.996; 95% CI [0.991–1.001]). An analysis of differences and a 95% confidence interval on pMC values reveals that there is no significant difference between direct carbonate and graphite pMC values for 76% of analyzed specimens, although variation in direct carbonate pMC is underestimated. The difference between the two methods is typically within 2 pMC, with 61% of direct carbonate pMC measurements being higher than their paired graphite counterpart. Of the 36 specimens that did yield significant differences, all but three missed the 95% significance threshold by 1.2 pMC or less. These results show that direct carbonate 14C dating of biogenic carbonates is a cost-effective and efficient complement to standard graphite 14C dating.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Galaxy groups have been under-studied relative to their richer counterparts — clusters. The Group Evolution Multiwavelength Study (GEMS) aims to redress some of the balance. Here we describe the GEMS sample selection and resulting sample of 60 nearby (< 130 Mpc) galaxy groups and our multiwavelength dataset of X-ray, optical, and Hı imaging. ROSAT X-ray images of each group are presented. GEMS also utilizes near-infrared imaging from the 2MASS survey and optical spectra from the 6dFGS. These observational data are complemented by mock group catalogues generated from the latest ΓCDM simulations with gas physics included. Existing GEMS publications are briefly highlighted as are future publication plans.
Creative Stimulator (CreaStim) is an intelligent interface
for pattern design that behaves as a semiactive partner to human
designers rather than as a passive graphical or computational
tool. By making adjustments to psychological differentials and/or
design parameters, CreaStim is able to help designers to explore
innovative pattern designs and to get inspiration, producing
different types of novel designs. In this article, the mechanism,
the technique, the implementation, and the testing of CreaStim
are described. The basic principle of CreaStim is the catastrophe
theory, which implies that sudden realization in the thinking
process of design may lead to creativity. CreaStim tries to
stimulate and/or impact designers' creativity in design
process using the output of it, rather than to simulate the
sudden realization. The core of the CreaStim is a neural
network-based imagining engine, a data repository, and its learning
strategies considering psychological factors. The psychological
factors, which are thought one of the key influences to creative
design, are based on the questionnaires completed by designers
about the existing successful designs. The repository contains
not only a traditional database storing functional attributes,
economic attributes, graphic description, structural description,
and psychological attributes, but also methods, rule-based
knowledge, and pattern-type knowledge. And it is managed by
an application program called Design Template Group (DTG) manager.
Trained with 12 pieces of successful pattern designs and 528
pieces of pseudo-examples produced and evaluated by the authors,
CreaStim is implemented for a PC and an evaluation poll from
five designers shows that designers may most likely get some
inspiration from the produced patterns and some of them can
even be adopted as the design alternatives directly.
As part of the Collaborative Study of the Psychobiology of Depression, we have examined the pretreatment growth hormone response (ΔGH) to insulin (0·1 U/kg) and the magnitude of the hypoglycaemic response in a large number of well-defined depressed patients (N = 132) and healthy controls (N = 80). After applying rigorous exclusion criteria, data were analysed from 93 patients and 66 controls for blood glucose response and from 56 patients and 52 controls for ΔGH. Depressed patients, either unipolar or bipolar, showed less of a fall in glucose than controls. A weak association was found between the magnitude of the fall in glucose and the severity of depression. No significant differences were found in values for ΔGH between the unipolar or bipolar depressed patients and controls either for males, pre-menopausal or postmenopausal females, or the total female group. These data do not support previous claims of a lowered ΔGH response to insulin in depressed patients. However, the resistance to hypoglycaemia seen in the depressed patients is consistent with previous reports.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.