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This study examines the causal relationship between education and the use of digital collaborative platforms as a first step in exploring the potential impact of the new digital labour markets on inequality. From the viewpoint of transaction costs theory, the less educated could benefit significantly from the digital collaborative economy due to the reduction in information costs made possible by this new form of exchange. Conversely, a positive relationship between educational level and platform use may be expected following neoclassical and institutionalist economic theories. Using microdata from the 2016 Eurobarometer survey, together with an instrumental variables strategy and conventional ordinary least squares models, hypothesis testing reveals that education has a clear positive effect on digital collaborative platform use. As a result, the less educated are less likely to access the job opportunities offered by digital labour markets. Understanding the relationship between education and access to digital collaborative platforms and impacts on socio-economic inequality is crucial for designing future public policies that promote social justice and well-being in a disrupted landscape.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Large-sized clinical trials have failed to show an overall benefit of surgery over medical treatment in managing spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH); less invasive techniques have shown to decrease brain injury caused by surgical manipulation in the standard open approach improving the clinical outcomes of patients. Thereby, we propose a low-cost 3D-printed endoport for a less invasive ICH evacuation. In this study, the authors compare the clinical outcomes of early surgical evacuation using a 3D-printed endoport vs. a standard open surgery (OS).
A retrospective analysis was conducted comparing patients who underwent early evacuation of a deep hypertensive ICH through an endoport vs. OS at a single center from August 2017 to March 2019. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data were reviewed. The primary outcomes were the 90-day post-stroke functional outcome and mortality.
A total of 36 patients were included. The two cohorts (18 endoport; 18 OS) showed no statistically significant differences in demographic, clinical, and radiologic characteristics, including median admission hemorrhage volume, Glasgow Coma Scale, and ICH scores. At 90-day post-stroke, 44% of patients in the endoport group and 17% in the OS group had a favorable functional outcome (mRS 0–3) (p = 0.039); moreover, the endoport group showed lower mortality (33% vs. 72%, p = 0.019).
This study suggests that an endoport-assisted ICH evacuation may have better functional outcomes and lower mortality than OS. The proposed device could provide a safe, low-cost alternative for ICH’s surgical treatment. More rigorous research is hence needed to assess the potential benefits of this technique.
In the present study, the influence of three sex ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3; female:male) of the mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) (Hemiptera) on different biological parameters and on its offspring was evaluated. The prey preference of different developmental stages of this predator for different nymphal instars (N) of Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was also evaluated. The fertility was significantly higher (24 nymphs/female) in the 1:3 sex ratio than in the 1:1 and 1:2 sex ratios (14 and 16 nymphs/female, respectively). The females in the 1:1 and 1:2 sex ratios lived 1.14 and 1.43 days more (27 and 28 days, respectively) than those in the 1:3 sex ratio (26 days). The nymphs derived from the females of the three sex ratios (first filial generation, F1) had five instars and a duration of 17 or 18 days. The ratio of the F1 generation females was not affected by the sex ratio of their parents. In choice tests, independent of whether the preys were placed on a single or multiple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets, the consumption of females and males and N3, N4, and N5 nymphs of E. varians on B. cockerelli, generally showed the order of N2>N3>N4>N5. In conclusion, the findings revealed in this study can help to improve the rearing methodology for increasing populations of E. varians. In addition, they can serve as a guideline for releasing this predator in times when there is an abundance of early instar nymphs of B. cockerelli.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
Pulses such as peas, beans or lentils are one of the most complete foods at the nutritional level; however, they are one of the most often neglected foods in the diets of university students. Entrance to university translates into a major lifestyle change for many young people, and the habits acquired or cemented at this time will remain into adulthood. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between personal/sociodemographic factors, dietary intake of other food groups and the consumption of pulses in first-year university students. This cross-sectional study is part of the UniHcos project, a multicentre study of multipurpose prospective cohorts in eleven Spanish universities. Data from 9862 university students were collected through an online self-questionnaire completed by all students who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in the project during the 2011–2018 academic years. Of students, 75·8 % presented an inadequate (≤2 times/week) consumption of pulses. Living outside the family home in either a student residence (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·84) or rental (OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95) decreased the compliance with recommendations on the consumption of pulses. Low consumption of pulses is seemingly not restricted to a specific profile or dietary pattern among university students, and no specific focus group for intervention can be identified. Policies promoting the consumption of pulses among the university population as a whole are necessary to increase compliance rates with the dietary recommendations.
We present the main results from the analysis of the Hα-[NII] emission lines with integral field spectroscopy observations gathered with MEGARA at the GTC of the nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC7469. We obtained maps of the ionised gas in the inner 12.5 arcsec × 11.3 arcsec, at spatial scales of 0.62 arcsec, with an unprecedented spectral resolution (R ˜ 20 000). We characterized the kinematics and ionisation mechanism of the distinct kinematic components (Cazzoli et al.2019).
The goal of this study is to describe the development of a new tool, the Psychosocial and Spiritual Needs Evaluation scale Instrumento de Evaluación de Necesidades Psicosociales y Espirituales del Enfermo al Final de Vida (ENP-E), designed to assess the psychosocial needs of end-of-life (EOL) patients. And, secondarily, to describe the face validity and psychometric properties of this instrument in the Spanish-speaking context.
The scale was developed through a seven-stage process: (1) literature review; (2) expert panel establishment; (3) discussion and agreement on the most relevant dimensions of psychosocial care; (4) description of key indicators and consensus-based questions to evaluate such dimensions; (5) assessment of the scale by external palliative care (PC) professionals; (6) evaluation by patients; and (7) analysis of scale's psychometrics properties. To assess content validity, 30 PC professionals and 20 patients evaluated the questionnaire. To determine psychometric properties, 150 participants completed these scales: the ENP-E; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; item 15 from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative; and the Distress Thermometer.
All respondents evaluated the tool as “excellent.” In terms of construct validity, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.74) and temporal stability (test-retest r = 0.74, p < 0.1) were both adequate. On the factorial analysis, four factors (emotional-wellbeing, social support, spiritual, and information) explained 58.4% of the variance. This scale has a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 78.9%, and the cutoff is 28.
Significance of results
To provide quality PC to EOL patients, it is essential to determine the psychosocial factors that influence well-being. This requires the use of reliable and specific instruments. The ENP-E is a novel tool that provides a systematic, holistic assessment of the psychosocial needs of EOL patients. Its routine use would allow clinicians to monitor such needs over time. This would, in turn, permit comprehensive, highly individualized interventions to improve effective PC approach.
Newly discovered archaeological sites in the Uribe Kosta region of northern Spain are illuminating the establishment of late prehistoric coastal farming settlements and specialised tool-production activities.
Fossil remains and the technological complexes recorded in archaeological sites suggest that the human presence in Europe late in the early and middle Pleistocene was discontinuous. Moreover, competition for meat with other secondary consumers could have delayed the human dispersal through Europe. However, evaluation of the extent competition intensity among secondary consumers suggests this influenced the discontinuity of the human settlement of Europe between 1.1 and 0.2 Ma. Using a mathematical model, we estimate the amount of biomass available in a community for secondary consumers. The amount of available biomass is subsequently distributed among the guild of secondary consumers according to their requirements and prey preferences. Indexes that quantify the competition intensity among secondary consumers to compare the conditions in different paleoecosystems show that the competition intensity late in the early Pleistocene, early in the middle Pleistocene, and late in the middle Pleistocene does not support the view that an increase in competition intensity constrained the expansion of human populations early in the middle Pleistocene. Somewhat paradoxically, the lowest competition intensity is estimated to have occurred early in the middle Pleistocene, most likely because of an increase in the number of large herbivore species and a decrease in the number of secondary consumers. The early Pleistocene paleoecosystems supported higher competition intensity than the middle Pleistocene ecosystems, likely because of the different configuration in the food webs of these two periods (the early and middle Pleistocene).
The present work on the feeding ecology of Scorpaena porcus according to season, sex and size, is the first study carried out in the rocky intertidal in the NE Atlantic. Previous studies were carried out with fish collected in fishing grounds from Mediterranean areas. A total of 106 fish were caught in monthly samplings from April 2008 to July 2010 in three areas of the rocky intertidal zone in the Gulf of Cadiz. The diet composition varied with season, size and sex. Shrimps were the main diet resource during all year, but other prey were also important depending on the season. As the size of fish increased, predation on smaller crustaceans decreased and consumption of larger crustaceans and fish augmented. Females and males based their diet on shrimps, while indeterminate fish fed largely on amphipods. No significant differences were found between feeding intensity and season, size and sex. Nevertheless, the PERMANOVA results showed that the number of prey is affected by the interaction between sex and size class. Our results highlight that S. porcus is a stenophagic species that shows a gradual segregation in the use of resources as it grows, which indicates there is no intraspecific competition in the rocky intertidal.