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The number of people over the age of 65 attending Emergency Departments (ED) in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing. Those who attend with a mental health related problem may be referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. Improving responsiveness and integration of liaison psychiatry in general hospital settings is a national priority. To do this psychiatry teams must be adequately resourced and organised. However, it is unknown how trends in the number of referrals of older people to liaison psychiatry teams by EDs are changing, making this difficult.
We performed a national multi-centre retrospective service evaluation, analysing existing psychiatry referral data from EDs of people over 65. Sites were selected from a convenience sample of older peoples liaison psychiatry departments. Departments from all regions of the UK were invited to participate via the RCPsych liaison and older peoples faculty email distribution lists. From departments who returned data, we combined the date and described trends in the number and rate of referrals over a 7 year period.
Referral data from up to 28 EDs across England and Scotland over a 7 year period were analysed (n = 18828 referrals). There is a general trend towards increasing numbers of older people referred to liaison psychiatry year on year. Rates rose year on year from 1.4 referrals per 1000 ED attenders (>65 years) in 2011 to 4.5 in 2019 . There is inter and intra site variability in referral numbers per 1000 ED attendances between different departments, ranging from 0.1 - 24.3.
To plan an effective healthcare system we need to understand the population it serves, and have appropriate structures and processes within it. The overarching message of this study is clear; older peoples mental health emergencies presenting in ED are common and appear to be increasingly so. Without appropriate investment either in EDs or community mental health services, this is unlikely to improve.
The data also suggest very variable inter-departmental referral rates. It is not possible to establish why rates from one department to another are so different, or whether outcomes for the population they serve are better or worse. The data does however highlight the importance of asking further questions about why the departments are different, and what impact that has on the patients they serve.
Early assessment, diagnosis and management for people living with dementia is essential, both for the patient and their carers. We recognised delays in established local pathways when patients had unplanned acute hospital admissions preventing them from attending memory diagnostic appointments. The Psychiatric Liaison Team (PLT) Memory Pathway was introduced as we had the skills and expertise to resume the process and to find new undetected patients.
Our aim was to determine how well the newly implemented PLT Memory Pathway follows the standards outlined in the National Institute of Health & Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 97 (CG97): Assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers.
A retrospective analysis of all PLT referrals from July 2018 to February 2020 (20 months) was performed to identify patients on the community memory pathway and those with possible undetected cognitive impairment. Data were collected from electronic patient records which included demographics, primary and collateral history, cognitive testing and imaging, dementia type among others. Results were analysed using Microsoft Excel.
41 patients were included (59% female). 80% of patients were referred for memory problems or confusion. 63% had previous referrals to a memory service and was on the community memory pathway at the time of the referral. 34% were on anticholinergic medication but in only 14% were this documented as reviewed. 100 % were offered and had head imaging. A finding worthy of note was the absence of any from the ethnic minority background. 63% of patients were given a memory diagnosis and 34% had anti-dementia medication started. Patients’ families were made aware of the diagnosis in 83% of cases, due to the absence of next of kin details in the patient record. Primary Care was made aware in 100% of cases; post-diagnostic support was 100%.
The PLT is well placed to bridge the service gap between the acute care trust and established community memory services when dealing with patients with dementia. A dedicated Memory Pathway has helped to close this gap and adherence to NICE CG97 standards was good, but there is room for improvement. A particular focus will be on improving documentation of anticholinergic medication review and exploration for the absence of ethnic minority patients. Aiming to achieve 100% family involvement is also recommended.
This study has been submitted to the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Faculty of Old Age Annual Conference 2021.
Recently the NHS has expanded the provision of liaison mental health services (LMHS) to ensure that every acute hospital with an emergency department in England has a liaison psychiatry service. Little work has been undertaken to explore first-hand experiences of these services. The aim of this study was to capture service users’ experiences of LMHS in both emergency departments and acute inpatient wards in the UK, with a view to adapt services to better meet the needs of its users.
This cross-sectional internet survey was initially advertised from May-July 2017 using the social media platform Facebook. Due to a paucity of male respondents, it was re-run from November 2017-February 2018, specifically targeting this demographic group. 184 people responded to the survey, of which 147 were service users and 37 were service users’ accompanying partners, friends or family members. The survey featured a structured questionnaire divided into three categories: the profile of the respondent, perceived professionalism of LMHS, and overall opinion of the service. Space was available for free-text comments in each section. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data was undertaken with R statistical software V.3.2.2. Qualitative data from free-text comments were transcribed and interpreted independently by three researchers using framework analysis; familiarisation with the data was followed by identification of a thematic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation.
Opinions of the service were mixed but predominantly negative. 31% of service users and 27% of their loved ones found their overall contact with LMHS useful. Features most frequently identified as important were the provision of a 24/7 service, assessment by a variety of healthcare professionals and national standardisation of services. Respondents indicated that the least important feature was the provision of a separate service for older people. They also expressed that a desirable LMHS would include faster assessments following referral from the parent team, clearer communication about next steps and greater knowledge of local services and third sector organisations.
Our survey identified mixed responses, however service users and their loved ones perceived LMHS more frequently as negative than positive. This may be attributed to the recent governmental drive to assess, treat and discharge 95% of all patients seen in emergency departments within four hours of initial attendance. Additionally, dissatisfied service users are more likely to volunteer their opinions. The evaluation and adaptation of LMHS should be prioritised to enhance their inherent therapeutic value and improve engagement with treatment and future psychiatric care.
Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a transient period of recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterised by disorientation, amnesia, and cognitive disturbance. Agitation is common during PTA and presents as a barrier to patient outcome. A relationship between cognitive impairment and agitation has been observed. This prospective study aimed to examine the different aspects of cognition associated with agitation.
The sample comprised 82 participants (75.61% male) admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital in PTA. All patients had sustained moderate to extremely severe brain injury as assessed using the Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale (WPTAS) (mean duration = 42.30 days, SD = 35.10). Participants were assessed daily using the Agitated Behaviour Scale and WPTAS as part of routine clinical practice during PTA. The Confusion Assessment Protocol was administered two to three times per week until passed criterion was achieved (mean number assessments = 3.13, SD = 3.76). Multilevel mixed modelling was used to investigate the association between aspects of cognition and agitation using performance on items of mental control, orientation, memory free recall, memory recognition, vigilance, and auditory comprehension.
Findings showed that improvement in orientation was significantly associated with lower agitation levels. A nonsignificant trend was observed between improved recognition memory and lower agitation.
Current findings suggest that the presence of disorientation in PTA may interfere with a patient’s ability to understand and engage with the environment, which in turn results in agitated behaviours. Interventions aimed at maximizing orientation may serve to minimize agitation during PTA.
To confirm the factor validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS), as set out in the original development study, when used with a sample of family carers of older adults.
A series of confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to test the previously proposed factor solutions of each scale.
As part of a larger cross-sectional survey, the scales were completed online or via hard copy between July and December 2019.
An international sample of 171 family carers of adults aged 65 years or older.
The CEAS are three measures that individually assess Compassion for Self, Compassion to Others, and Compassion from Others. All scales measure two aspects, “engagement” and “actions” (two-factor solution), and Compassion for Self also measures two further dimensions within engagement: “sensitivity to suffering” and “engagement with suffering” (three-factor solution).
Results were largely consistent with the two-factor solutions proposed for the three orientations of compassion, with acceptable fit and good internal reliability. There was some support for the three-factor solution of Compassion for Self; however, despite model fit comparable to the two-factor solution, internal reliability of the delineated “engagement” dimensions was low, and there was a weak factor loading for item 5 that measured distress tolerance.
Use of the CEAS with family carers of older adults is promising. Further research is recommended with larger samples and to explore distress tolerance as a competency within conceptualization and measurement of compassion.
This chapter offers a reflexive account of a co-produced, multisectoral, community-based project between Glasgow Open Museum (OM), Glasgow Association for Mental Health (GAMH) and Queen Margaret University (QMU). The project is framed around an accredited Public Sociology module, Identity Community & Society, in which participants explore sociological explanations of identity, community and society whilst engaging with and interpreting art and artefacts from the OM collections. We share our experiences of reaching over the chasms between the worlds of museums, mental health advocacy and higher education. Crucially, we hear from student participants, as co-authors, about the increased selfconfidence and reflexive knowledge resulting from participation in the project. In interpreting different art works, participants consider a range of sociological concepts, debates and theories, that frame their interpretation of art, but also facilitate the development of a critical consciousness about social issues that they have direct experience of themselves or that impact participants’ communities.
Widening participation is at the heart of this project; the adult learners, most of whom have limited recent experience of formal learning, became associate students of QMU, with full access to institutional resources whilst learning in a safe community space. In the presentation of our narrative here, we draw upon a combination of personal reflexive accounts, participant feedback and theoretical inspirations. More specifically, later in the chapter, we unpack the underpinning ethos of the project as theoretically framed by Freire's (1970) dialogical ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’, and we conceptualise the practice of our participants as Gramscian organic intellectuals (Gottlieb, 1989). We take the opportunity to weave critical reflection on the utility of Burawoy's (2005) theses for public sociology as a channel through which to interpret and problematise ‘for whom’ and ‘for what’ public sociology is, as well as our positions as value committed, partisan public sociologists, who are committed to creating a sociological space in which community-based adult learners mobilise their own sociological praxis. The focus in this chapter is explaining the meaning of (and need for) a public sociology as a particular style of practising sociology in an engaged, community-focussed way; and which speaks to, for, and with publics in their own communities.
Ga proverbial wisdom holds that “hate has no medicine,” but there is a sacred court in Accra where people can calm the animosity that emerges from social conflicts. A unique form of vernacular jurisprudence has emerged at the Nae We Shrine Tribunal, which manages the consequences of civil, criminal, and supernatural crimes without raising the ire of human rights activists. Using records from this shrine court, the authors of this article demonstrate how the Tribunal offers social and spiritual wellbeing in a manner that cannot be provided by the chiefly and state judicial systems.
National guidance cautions against low-intensity interventions for people with personality disorder, but evidence from trials is lacking.
To test the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial of a low-intensity intervention for people with personality disorder.
Single-blind, feasibility trial (trial registration: ISRCTN14994755). We recruited people aged 18 or over with a clinical diagnosis of personality disorder from mental health services, excluding those with a coexisting organic or psychotic mental disorder. We randomly allocated participants via a remote system on a 1:1 ratio to six to ten sessions of Structured Psychological Support (SPS) or to treatment as usual. We assessed social functioning, mental health, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with care and resource use and costs at baseline and 24 weeks after randomisation.
A total of 63 participants were randomly assigned to either SPS (n = 33) or treatment as usual (n = 30). Twenty-nine (88%) of those in the active arm of the trial received one or more session (median 7). Among 46 (73%) who were followed up at 24 weeks, social dysfunction was lower (−6.3, 95% CI −12.0 to −0.6, P = 0.03) and satisfaction with care was higher (6.5, 95% CI 2.5 to 10.4; P = 0.002) in those allocated to SPS. Statistically significant differences were not found in other outcomes. The cost of the intervention was low and total costs over 24 weeks were similar in both groups.
SPS may provide an effective low-intensity intervention for people with personality disorder and should be tested in fully powered clinical trials.
Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
Objectives: Anecdotal reports suggest that following traumatic brain injury (TBI) retrograde memories are initially impaired and recover in order of remoteness. However, there has been limited empirical research investigating whether a negative gradient in retrograde amnesia—relative preservation of remote over recent memory—exists during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) compared with the acute phase post-emergence. This study used a repeated-measures design to examine the pattern of personal semantic (PS) memory performance during PTA and within two weeks of emergence to improve understanding of the nature of the memory deficit during PTA and its relationship with recovery. Methods: Twenty patients with moderate-severe TBI and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were administered the Personal Semantic Schedule of the Autobiographical Memory Interview. The TBI group was assessed once during PTA and post-emergence. Analysis of variance was used to compare the gradient across lifetime periods during PTA relative to post-emergence, and between groups. Results: PS memory was significantly lower during PTA than post-emergence from PTA, with no relative preservation of remote memories. The TBI group was still impaired relative to HCs following emergence from PTA. Lower overall PS memory scores during PTA were associated with increased days to emerge from PTA post-interview. Conclusions: These results suggest a global impairment in PS memory across lifetime periods particularly during PTA, but still present within 2 weeks of emergence from PTA. PS memory performance may be sensitive to the diffuse nature of TBI and may, therefore, function as a clinically valuable indicator of the likely time to emerge from PTA. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1064–1072)
Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy is often characterised in terms of competitive individuals debating orally with one another in public arenas. But it also developed over its long history a sense in which philosophers might acknowledge some other particular philosopher or group of philosophers as an authority and offer to that authority explicit intellectual allegiance. This is most obvious in the development after the classical period of the philosophical 'schools' with agreed founders and, most importantly, canonical founding texts. There also developed a tradition of commentary, interpretation, and discussion of texts which itself became a mode of philosophical debate. As time went on, the weight of a growing tradition of reading and appealing to a certain corpus of foundational texts began to shape how later antiquity viewed its philosophical past and also how philosophical debate and inquiry was conducted. In this book leading scholars explore aspects of these important developments.