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Liben Lark Heteromirafra archeri is a ‘Critically Endangered’ species threatened by the loss and degradation of grassland at the Liben Plain, southern Ethiopia, one of only two known sites for the species. We use field data from nine visits between 2007 and 2019 and satellite imagery to quantify changes over time in the species’ abundance and in the extent and quality of its habitat. We estimate that the population fell from around 279 singing males (95% CL: 182–436) in 2007 to around 51 (14–144) in 2013, after which too few birds were recorded to estimate population size. Arable cultivation first appeared on the plain in the early 1990s and by 2019 more than a third of the plain had been converted to crops. Cultivation was initially confined to the fertile black soils but from 2008 began to spread into the less fertile red soils that cover most of the plain. Liben Larks strongly avoided areas with extensive bare ground or trees and bushes, but the extent of these did not change significantly over the survey period. A plausible explanation for the species’ decline is that grassland degradation, caused before 2007 by continuous high-pressure grazing by livestock, reduced its rates of reproduction or survival to a level that could not support its previous population. Since 2015, communal kalos (grazing exclosures) have been established to generate forage and other resources in the hope of also providing breeding habitat for Liben Larks. Grass height and density within four grassland kalos in 2018 greatly exceeded that in the surrounding grassland, indicating that the plain retains the potential to recover rapidly if appropriately managed. Improvement of grassland structure through the restitution of traditional and sustainable rangeland management regimes and the reversion of cereal agriculture to grassland are urgently needed to avert the species’ extinction.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly common in the United States and have the potential to spread widely across healthcare networks. Only a fraction of patients with CRE carriage (ie, infection or colonization) are identified by clinical cultures. Interventions to reduce CRE transmission can be explored with agent-based models (ABMs) comprised of unique agents (eg, patients) represented by a synthetic population or model-generated representation of the population. We used electronic health record data to determine CRE carriage risk, and we discuss how these results can inform CRE transmission parameters for hospitalized agents in a regional healthcare network ABM. Methods: We reviewed the laboratory data of patients admitted during July 1, 2016−June 30, 2017, to any of 7 short-term acute-care hospitals of a regional healthcare network in North Carolina (N = 118,022 admissions) to find clinically detected cases of CRE carriage. A case was defined as the first occurrence of Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp resistant to any carbapenem isolated from a clinical specimen in an admitted patient. We used Poisson regression to estimate clinically detected CRE carriage risk according to variables common to data from both the electronic health records and the ABM synthetic population, including patient demographics, systemic antibiotic administration, intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, length of stay, and admitting hospital size. Results: We identified 58 (0.05%) cases of CRE carriage among all admissions. Among these cases, 30 (52%) were ≥65 years of age and 37 (64%) were female. During their admission, 47 cases (81%) were administered systemic antibiotics and 18 cases (31%) had an intensive care unit stay. Patients administered systemic antibiotics and those with an intensive care unit stay had CRE carriage risk 6.5 times (95% CI, 3.4–12.5) and 4.9 times (95% CI, 2.8–8.5) higher, respectively, than patients without these exposures (Fig. 1). Patients ≥50 years of age and those with a higher Elixhauser comorbidity index score and with longer length of stay also had increased CRE carriage risk. Conclusions: Among admissions in our dataset, CRE carriage risk was associated with systemic antibiotic exposure, intensive care unit stay, higher Elixhauser comorbidity index score, and longer length of stay. We will use these risk estimates in the ABM to inform agents’ CRE carriage status upon hospital admission and the CRE transmission parameters for short-term acute-care hospitals. We will explore CRE transmission interventions in the parameterized regional healthcare network ABM and assess the impact of CRE carriage underestimation.
Funding: This work was supported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cooperative Agreement number U01CK000527. The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the official position of CDC.
Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan became an iconic Palaeolithic site following Ralph Solecki's mid twentieth-century discovery of Neanderthal remains. Solecki argued that some of these individuals had died in rockfalls and—controversially—that others were interred with formal burial rites, including one with flowers. Recent excavations have revealed the articulated upper body of an adult Neanderthal located close to the ‘flower burial’ location—the first articulated Neanderthal discovered in over 25 years. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the individual was intentionally buried. This new find offers the rare opportunity to investigate Neanderthal mortuary practices utilising modern archaeological techniques.
Mental health problems are prevalent among therapists and may have a negative impact on therapist effectiveness. To counteract such problems, therapist self-care (for example, striking a balance between personal and professional demands and seeking personal therapy), has received increased attention. Conceptually, self-care can be considered as part of a personal practice model, focusing on techniques that therapists engage with self-experientially with a focus on their personal and/or professional development. However, studies of the self-application of specific treatment techniques are lacking. We aimed to explore the use, and perceived usefulness, of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques for self-care to prevent or treat own mental health problems among practising therapists. Participants were therapists (n = 228) of various professional backgrounds in Sweden. Data were collected using a web-based survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and non-parametric analyses conducted to investigate associations of 13 CBT techniques with therapist characteristics. Use of CBT techniques for self-care was highly prevalent among participants, and they perceived the techniques as useful, irrespective of characteristics such as gender, age, profession, years since graduation, clinical experience, level of training in CBT, and previous experience of personal CBT. The high prevalence among therapists of the use of treatment techniques for self-care is very encouraging. Therapist self-care, including the self-application of treatment techniques, may be an important factor for therapist effectiveness, which calls for further development of personal practice models with respect to self-care, and future studies investigating associations between therapist mental health, self-care, effectiveness and patient outcome.
Key learning aims
(1) Therapist self-care using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques to prevent or treat own mental health problems may influence therapist effectiveness. However, studies of self-application of treatment techniques are lacking.
(2) In the present survey study, the use of CBT techniques for self-care was highly prevalent among practising therapists, and they perceived the techniques as useful, irrespective of characteristics such as gender, age, profession, years since graduation, clinical experience, level of training in CBT, and previous experience of personal CBT.
(3) Almost all therapists believed that it was a good idea to self-apply CBT techniques for their own sake and for the benefit of their patients.
Coral reefs have experienced extensive degradation across the world over the last 50 years as a result of a variety of stressors operating at a range of spatial and temporal scales. In order to assess whether declines are continuing, or if reefs are recovering, detailed baseline information is required from across wide spatial scales. Unfortunately, for some regions this information is not readily available, making future reef trajectories difficult to determine. Here we characterized the current benthic community state for coral reefs in the Wakatobi region of Indonesia, one of the most biodiverse marine regions in the world. We surveyed 10 reef sites (5, 10 and 15 m depth) to explore spatial variation in coral reef benthic communities and provide a detailed baseline. Previous data (2002–2011) were available for coral, sponges, algae and soft coral at six of our study sites. Using this information, we determined if any changes had occurred in dominance of these benthic groups. We found that benthic assemblage composition differed significantly over relatively small spatial scales (2–10 km) and hard coral cover was highly variable, ranging from 7–48% (average 19.5% ± 1.5 SE). While coral cover appears to have declined at all sites where data were available since 2002, we found little evidence for widespread increases in other benthic groups or regime shifts. Our study provides a comprehensive baseline dataset for the region that can be used in the future to determine rates of change in benthic communities.
Chapter 1 discusses the terminology of the name Third Intermediate Period and demonstrates the views within previous archaeological thought and theory, showig which ideas have shaped the discussions and approaches to Third Intermediate Period archaeology, history, and culture. Chapter 1 also provides a discussion of the complex and disputed chronology for the Third Intermediate Period, outlining those areas that are agreed upon and those areas which are still debated.
Chapter 5 discusses the evidence presented in the preceding four chapters and its overall significance for the understanding of the development of Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period. The chapter discusses a series of interconnected characteristics identified within Third Intermediate Period culture and society which relate to the political and economic power of regions, the nucleation of both settlements and people, self-sufficiency at a collective and individual level, defence, both physical and spiritual, regionality in terms of settlement development and material culture, and finally elite emulation through objects. These characteristics are also discussed in association with the themes of continuity and change/transition compared with the previous New Kingdom, and also within aspects of the (Egyptian) north and (Libyan) south socio-cultural and socio-geographical divide.
Chapter 2 establishes the theoretical and archaeological context for the study of landscape and settlements in the Third Intermediate Period. It discusses the approaches to and problems inherent in Egyptian settlement studies regarding landscape reconstruction, the preservation of ancient sites, and defining the concept of ‘site’. The chapter constructs a framework for the understanding of settlement archaeology in the Third Intermediate Period through the analysis of a dataset made up of Third Intermediate Period textual and archaeological material from landscapes and settlements. It further outlines the archaeological theory regarding landscape archaeology in order to establish a methodology for the most effective way of approaching Egyptian settlement patterns and defining the concept of what is a ‘site’ in Egyptian settlement archaeology. The comprehensive record of survey, excavation reports, and artefact/textual source analysis compiled in Appendix 1 is used in Chapter 2 to evaluate the potential for conducting landscape archaeology to see whether settlement patterns are visible, the extent to which they are different from the New Kingdom, and the factors which may have influenced these patterns with due regard to the limitations of the data.
Chapter 4 demonstrates links back to Ramesside object preferences, and to precursors of Late Period object typologies. The material culture of everyday life and social practices of the people living at that time demonstrate the Third Intermediate Period as a distinctly defined cultural element within Egyptian society and Egyptology. There were changes in artefact usages and material culture, and implications for understanding characteristics of the object world of the period, and the lifecycles of the Third Intermediate Period population. The domestic material culture also demonstrates aspects of regionality in relation to the political fragmentation of the country. The ceramics of the period identify continuity or changes in storage, dining, and drinking cultures. Alongside ceramics, Chapter 4 also includes objects of personal adornment, tools, weapons, and re-used and salvaged stone. The artefacts and object-world of the settlements allow exploration of the social status of the population, their religious beliefs, the extent of elite emulation and self-sufficiency regarding elite object replication, the extent of object re-use and recycling, and the creation and availability of materials for object manufacture.
Chapter 3 assesses the built archaeological remains of the Third Intermediate Period and establishes the locations of preserved Third Intermediate Period domestic settlement remains to assess the different regional built environments of settlements and the way in which settlements developed spatially over time. The settlements are further analysed to define the way in which Late Period urban policies affected the development and preservation of Third Intermediate Period urban topography within the archaeological record. The maintenance of or changes in urban topography of the Third Intermediate Period are discussed in the light of the top-down policies of a new political regime in a re-unified government and state in Late Period Egypt. The chapter assesses whether the settlements in the Third Intermediate Period developed as independent entities within specific regions or if there was a general pattern of settlement policy across different political boundaries and geographical regions. It also assesses characteristics of new ideologies, both political and religious, and the economic limitations of different regions through the construction of monumental architecture (walls, temples, and palaces), the nucleation of domestic architecture around monumental constructions, the development of architectural design in both administrative, religious, and domestic architecture, and the self-sufficient nature of local populations.