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The effect of sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of HL-2A tokamak has been studied during the plasma current ramp-up in ohmically heated deuterium plasmas by the combination of poloidal and radial Langmuir probe arrays. The experimental results indicate that the SOL sheared E × B flow is substantially enhanced as the plasma current exceeds a certain value and the strong sheared E × B flow has the ability to slow the blob radial motion via stretching its poloidal correlation length. The locally accumulated blobs are suggested to be responsible for the increase of plasma density just outside the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS) observed in this experiment. The results presented here reveal the significant role played by the strong sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics, which provides a potential method to control the SOL width by modifying the sheared E × B flow in future tokamak plasmas.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
The method for measuring synchronization error of ultra-short pulses was introduced based on the principle of non-collinear cross-correlation. The analytical expression for the measurement was deduced according to the cross-correlation signal. The influences of angular error on the measurement were analyzed by simulated experiments. The incident angle and the angular error tolerance were both required to be considered and determined for the synchronization error measurement of ultra-short pulses. The results provide a theoretical basis for the measurement and control of the synchronization error in the coherent beam combination, plasma parameter diagnosis, etc.
There is considerable concern about the true net energy value that should be assigned to apparently digested energy in diets where a substantial proportion of the substrates are fermented in the gut. Experiments involving both digestibility and growth trials were undertaken to compare the growth supporting properties of apparently digested energy, arising either from fermentation or enzymic hydrolysis. Dried unmolassed sugar beet pulp (SBP) and maize starch (MS) were used as models for fermentation and enzymic hydrolysis respectively.
In the first phase, sixty estimates of digestibility were made with 10 female and 20 castrated male growing pigs. There were five diets, a control (C), and two concentrations of maize starch (100 and 200 g/kg) and two of sugar beet pulp (150 and 300 g/kg). The composition and chemical analysis of the five diets are presented in Table 1 . The pigs were housed in metabolic cages during the trials and female pigs had catheters in the urinary bladder. Collections were made over 10 days following a 7-day preliminary period. In the growth studies, 40 pigs (20 female and 20 male castrates) were allocated randomly to the same five diets.
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