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Schema therapy is an effective treatment for borderline personality disorder and other complex disorders. Schema therapy is feasible in older adults, and the first empirical support for its effectiveness in later life was provided in older patients with a cluster C personality disorder. The central concept of the schema therapy model is the early maladaptive schema (EMS). Early adaptive schemas (EAS) give rise to adaptive behaviour, and they also emerge during childhood, when core emotional needs are adequately met by primary caregivers.
To examine the concept of EAS and its application in schema therapy with older adults.
Literature review and case example: the role of EAS in schema therapy with older adults is discussed and suggestions for integrating EAS in schema therapy in later life are proposed.
Directing attention in therapy to EAS may help strengthen the healthy adult mode, and it might also help change a negative life review. Working with positive schemas may be an important avenue for re-awakening positive aspects of patients, reinforcing the therapeutic relationship, creating a positive working atmosphere, and also for facilitating the introduction of experiential schema therapy techniques.
This review suggests that positive schemas may be important vehicles of therapeutic change when working with older people. There is a need for validating the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) in older adults, and for examining whether integrating EAS in schema therapy with older adults indeed has a positive effect on therapy outcome.
Waves of electrical activity, measured as electromyograms (EMGs), running head to tail through the myotomes of the lateral swimming muscle are a common feature of forward steady speed swimming of fish. The detail of the EMG-onset and EMG-end timing has recently been shown to be of great significance when related to the strain (length change) cycle of the myotomal muscle fibres. The strain cycle is caused by the waves of curvature which pass along the body at a slower speed than the EMG waves during steady speed swimming. Based on this recent model, studies of seven fish species with and without tail blades are compared, and differences are indicated in the ways the myotomal muscle is used in different swimming modes.
Pettigrew (1873) studied a swimming sturgeon and showed that at any given time the body simultaneously showed lateral bending to the left and the right giving it an ‘S’ shape. The dynamic character of fish swimming movements became apparent once recorded by cine film techniques, and Housay (1912) was the first to describe how a wave of curvature runs from head to tail in elongated fish.
We are now aware that the waves of curvature running along the body of steadily swimming fish are the result of the combined effect of the activity patterns generated in the myotomes, and the interaction between the fish's body and reactive forces from the water in which the fish moves. This implies that the coupling between the waves of muscle activity and the waves of curvature depend on the details of the body and fin shapes, which are a characteristic of each fish species.
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