The two ‘forms’ of the Afrotropical shoot-fly Atherigona rubricornis Stein are shown to be good species. A neotype is designated for the true A. rubricornis, which is restricted to tropical Africa. The other form is described as A. triticisp. n. It is widespread in tropical Africa, but is known also from Egypt, where the larvae attack wheat seedlings, Israel and Yemen. Infestation levels of larvae, with maxima between 9% and 32%, indicate that it is a significant pest of wheat seedlings in Egypt.