Background: A subset of patients experience poor outcomes following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Our study aimed to identify postoperative trajectories of disability, neck/arm pain and determine baseline measures that predict subgroup membership. Methods: Patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy undergoing ACDF are presented. Prognostic factors comprised demographic, health and surgery-related variables. Study outcomes were trajectories of neck disability index scores, numeric rating scales for neck/arm pain modeled with latent-class growth analysis. Associations were explored using robust Poisson models and reported with risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Patients (N = 352; mean (SD) age = 50.9(9.5) years, 43.8% female) identified trajectories for disability (excellent=45.3%,fair=39.2%,poor=15.5%),arm pain (excellent=24.5%,good=52.0%,poor=23.5%),and neck pain (excellent=13.7%,good=63.1%,poor=23.2%). Greater physical and mental health-related quality of life were associated with a reduced risk of poor outcome(per SD,0.40[0.30,0.53]-0.80[0.65,0.99]), while higher risk for depression (per SD, 1.36[1.12,1.65]-2.26[1.84,2.78]), longer wait time(per 90 days, 1.31[1.05,1.63]-1.64[1.20,2.24]), and longer procedure time (per 30 min,1.07[1.03,1.10]-1.08[1.05,1.12]) were associated with an increased risk of poor outcome for all outcomes. Poor disability was increased with self-reported depression(3.03[1.76,5.21]), greater neck-to-arm pain ratio (2.63 [1.28 to 5.40]), ASA score > 2(2.26[1.33,3.83]), and preoperative opiates (2.05[1.18,3.56]), while preoperative physiotherapy (0.51[0.30, 0.88]), spinal injections (0.48[0.23 to 0.98]), and regular exercise (0.44 [0.24, 0.79]) decreased risk. Receiving compensation and smoking were associated with poor outcome for neck pain. Remaining candidate prognostic factors were not associated with clinical outcome. Conclusions: Perioperative factors were shown to decrease risk of poor outcomes for pain and disability two years following ACDF.