To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rewetting is the establishment of water–surface contact that occurs during quenching of high temperature surfaces by water jet impingement. Rewetting is an unexpectedly complex phenomenon that has been reported to occur at surface temperatures significantly higher than the superheating limit of water. The presence of intermittently wet and dry episodes, and in particular the occurrence of so-called explosive boiling, is one of the theories to explain the contact of water with high temperature surfaces. However, there is a lack of experimental data in the literature to prove the presence of explosive boiling and intermittent wetting due to the small duration and scale of the rewetting phenomenon. In this study, recordings of the jet stagnation zone during rewetting are provided at a frame rate of 81 kfps. The high-speed recordings show a flashing regime consisting of intermittent (dry) bubble-rich and (wet) bubble-free periods at frequencies up to 40 kHz when the rewetted surface temperature exceeds the water superheat limit. As far as the authors know, these are the first direct observations of intermittent dry–wet periods occurring in the jet stagnation zone during quenching by water jet impingement. The dependency of the flashing frequency on initial surface temperature is quantified. A correlation between the size of the rewetting patch and the flashing frequency is found. Finally, a hypothesis to explain the role of water subcooling in maintaining the water–surface contact at surface temperatures well above the superheating limit of water is presented.
A temporal complex network-based approach is proposed as a novel formulation to investigate turbulent mixing from a Lagrangian viewpoint. By exploiting a spatial proximity criterion, the dynamics of a set of fluid particles is geometrized into a time-varying weighted network. Specifically, a numerically solved turbulent channel flow is employed as an exemplifying case. We show that the time-varying network is able to clearly describe the particle swarm dynamics, in a parametrically robust and computationally inexpensive way. The network formalism enables us to straightforwardly identify transient and long-term flow regimes, the interplay between turbulent mixing and mean flow advection and the occurrence of proximity events among particles. Thanks to their versatility and ability to highlight significant flow features, complex networks represent a suitable tool for Lagrangian investigations of turbulent mixing. The present application of complex networks offers a powerful resource for Lagrangian analysis of turbulent flows, thus providing a further step in building bridges between turbulence research and network science.
We have performed a particle-resolved direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow past a moving dilute array of spherical particles. The flow shares important features with dilute vertical gas solid flow at high Stokes number, such as significant attenuation of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) at low particle volume fraction. The flow has been simulated by means of an overset grid method, using spherical grids around each particle overset on a background non-uniform Cartesian grid. The main focus of the present paper is on the TKE budget, which is analysed both in the fixed channel frame of reference and in the moving particle frame of reference. The overall (domain-integrated) TKE and turbulence production due to mean shear are reduced compared to unladen flow. In the fixed frame, the interfacial term, which represents production due to relative (slip) velocity, accounts for approximately 40 % of the total turbulence production in the channel. As a consequence, the total turbulence production and the overall turbulence dissipation rate remain approximately the same as in the unladen flow. However, a comparison with laminar flow past the same particle configuration reveals that significant parts of various fixed-frame statistics are due to non-turbulent structures, spatial variations that are steady in the moving particle frame. In order to obtain a clearer picture of the modification of the true turbulence and in order to reveal the rich three-dimensional (3-D) statistical structure of turbulence interacting with particles, time averaging in the moving frame of reference of the particle is used to extract the fluctuations entirely due to true turbulence. In the moving frame, the turbulence production is positive near the sides and in the wake, but negative in a region near the front of the particle. The turbulence dissipation rate and even more the dissipation rate of the 3-D mean flow attain very large values on a large part of the particle surface, up to approximately 400 and 4000 times the local turbulence dissipation rate of the unladen flow, respectively. Very close to the particle, viscous diffusion is the dominant transport term, but somewhat further away, in particular near the front and sides of the particle, pressure diffusion and also convection provide large and positive transport contributions to the moving-frame budget. A radial analysis shows that the regions around the particles draw energy from the regions further away via the surprising dominance of the pressure diffusion flux over a large range of radii. Spectra show that (very) far away from the particles all scales of the (true) turbulence are reduced. Near the particles enhancement of small scale turbulence is observed, for the streamwise component of the velocity fluctuation more than for the other components. The most important reason for turbulence reduction and anisotropy increase appears to be particle-induced non-uniformity of the mean driving force of the flow.
The Greek aperitif Ouzo is not only famous for its specific anise-flavoured taste, but also for its ability to turn from a transparent miscible liquid to a milky-white coloured emulsion when water is added. Recently, it has been shown that this so-called Ouzo effect, i.e. the spontaneous emulsification of oil microdroplets, can also be triggered by the preferential evaporation of ethanol in an evaporating sessile Ouzo drop, leading to an amazingly rich drying process with multiple phase transitions (Tan et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 113 (31), 2016, pp. 8642–8647). Due to the enhanced evaporation near the contact line, the nucleation of oil droplets starts at the rim which results in an oil ring encircling the drop. Furthermore, the oil droplets are advected through the Ouzo drop by a fast solutal Marangoni flow. In this article, we investigate the evaporation of mixture droplets in more detail, by successively increasing the mixture complexity from pure water over a binary water–ethanol mixture to the ternary Ouzo mixture (water, ethanol and anise oil). In particular, axisymmetric and full three-dimensional finite element method simulations have been performed on these droplets to discuss thermal effects and the complicated flow in the droplet driven by an interplay of preferential evaporation, evaporative cooling and solutal and thermal Marangoni flow. By using image analysis techniques and micro-particle-image-velocimetry measurements, we are able to compare the numerically predicted volume evolutions and velocity fields with experimental data. The Ouzo droplet is furthermore investigated by confocal microscopy. It is shown that the oil ring predominantly emerges due to coalescence.
Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry is applied to particle-laden turbulent pipe flows at a Reynolds number of 10 300, based on the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter, for developed fluid flow and not fully developed flow of inertial particles, which favours assessment of the radial migration of the inertial particles. Inertial particles with Stokes number ranging from 0.35 to 1.11, based on the particle relaxation time and the radial-dependent Kolmogorov time scale, and a ratio of the root-mean-square fluid velocity to the terminal velocity of order 1 have been used. Core peaking of the concentration of inertial particles in up-flow and wall peaking in down-flow have been found. The difference in mean particle and Eulerian mean liquid velocity is found to decrease to approximately zero near the wall in both flow directions. Although the carrier fluid has all of the characteristics of the corresponding turbulent single-phase flow, the Reynolds stress of the inertial particles is different near the wall in up-flow. These findings are explained from the preferential location of the inertial particles with the aid of direct numerical simulations with the point-particle approach.
We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in the turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapour. We adopt an Euler–Lagrangian formulation based on conservation laws for the mass, momentum and energy of the continuous phase and on empirical correlations describing momentum, heat and mass transfer between the droplet phase and the carrier gas phase. An incompressible flow formulation is applied for direct numerical simulation of differentially heated turbulent channel flow. The two-way coupling is investigated in terms of its effects on mass and heat transfer characteristics and the resulting droplet size distribution. Compared to simulations without droplets or those with solid particles with the same size and specific heat as the water droplets, a significant increase in Nusselt number is found, arising from the additional phase changes. The Nusselt number increases with increasing ambient temperature and is almost independent of the heat flux applied to the walls of the channel. The time-averaged droplet size distribution displays a characteristic dependence on position expressing the combined effect of turbophoresis and phase changes in turbulent wall-bounded flow. In the statistically steady state that is reached after a long time, the resulting flow exhibits a mean motion of water vapour from the warm wall to the cold wall, where it condenses on average, followed by a net mean mass transfer of droplets from the cold wall to the warm wall.
Explicit expressions for the added mass tensor of a bubble in strongly nonlinear deformation and motion near a plane wall are presented. Time evolutions and interconnections of added mass components are derived analytically and analysed. Interface dynamics have been predicted with two methods, assuming that the flow is irrotational, that the fluid is perfect and with the neglect of gravity. The assumptions that gravity and viscosity are negligible are verified by investigating their effects and by quantifying their impact in some cases of strong deformation, and criteria are presented to specify the conditions of their validity. The two methods are an analytical one and the boundary element method, and good agreement is found. It is explained why a strongly deforming bubble is decelerated. The classical Rayleigh–Plesset equation is extended with terms to account for arbitrary, axisymmetric deformation and to account for the proximity of a wall. An expression for the corresponding cycle frequency that is valid in the vicinity of the wall is derived. An equation similar to the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is presented for the most important anisotropic deformation mode. Well-known expressions for the angular frequencies of some periodic solutions without a wall follow easily from the equations presented. A periodically deforming bubble without initial velocity of the centroid and without a dominating isotropic deformation component is eventually always driven towards the wall. A simplified equation of motion of the centre of a deforming bubble is presented. If desired, full deformation computations can be speeded up by selecting an artificially low value of the polytropic constant Cp/Cv.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.