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A detailed numerical investigation of thermocapillary effects during the melting of phase-change materials in microgravity is presented. The phase-change transition is analysed for the high-Prandtl-number material n-octadecane, which is enclosed in a two-dimensional rectangular container subjected to isothermal conditions along the lateral walls. The progression of the solid/liquid front during the melting leaves a free surface, where the thermocapillary effect acts driving convection in the liquid phase. The nature of the flow found during the melting depends on the container aspect ratio, $\varGamma$, and on the Marangoni number, $Ma$. For large $\varGamma$, this flow initially adopts a steady return flow structure characterised by a single large vortex, which splits into a series of smaller vortices to create a steady multicellular structure (SMC) with increasing $Ma$. At larger values of $Ma$, this SMC undergoes a transition to oscillatory flow through the appearance of a hydrothermal travelling wave (HTW), characterised by the creation of travelling vortices near the cold boundary. For small $\varGamma$, the thermocapillary flow at small to moderate $Ma$ is characterised by an SMC that develops initially within a thin layer near the free surface. At larger times, the SMC evolves into a large-scale steady vortical structure. With increasing applied $Ma$, a complex oscillatory mode is observed. This state, referred to as an oscillatory standing wave (OSW), is characterised by the pulsation of the vortical structure. Finally, for an intermediate $\varGamma$ both HTW and OSW modes can be found depending on $Ma$.
Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem and not all patients respond adequately to psychotherapy. In the last decade, researchers report a significant comorbidity of EDs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Some studies postulate the hypothesis of a common neurobiological substrate, such as noradrenergic pathways among others.
To revise the possible use of atomoxetine, a highly selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of EDs.
We describe the effect of atomoxetine in a young woman with purging disorder and history of ADHD in childhood added to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
patient had selective/restrictive eating behaviours, daily purges and occasional binges for last five years. At age 14 she was diagnosed with ADHD by impulsivity/aggressiveness and poor school performance, but she did not take drugs and left medical consultations. She came to our specific unit of EDs in november-2015. Her BMI was 24.88 kg/m2. We initiated CBT and atomoxetine (80 mg/day). In this first year of treatment binges and purges have disappeared and exposure to new foods and body image have improved partially. We found clear improvement in mood, motivation and attention/concentration in relation with introduction of atomoxetine. These facts have positive impact on the clinical evolution. Her current BMI is 26.90 kg/m2.
Identify comorbid ADHD to assess the use of specific drugs for this disorder could be beneficial in the treatment and prognosis of EDs. However, more studies are needed to determine effectivenes, particularly of non-stimulant drugs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia is associated with relevant side effects: short-term as hypogonadism, gynecomastia, amenorrhoea, sexual dysfunction and galactorrhoea; long-term as cardiovascular disease, bone demineralization and breast and prostate tumors.
To evaluate the effect of switching to long-acting injectable aripiprazole on long-lasting antypsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia.
This was a prospective observational 1-year study carried out in 125 outpatients with schizophrenia who were clinically stabilized but a switching to another antipsychotic was indicated. We measured the basal prolactine at the start of the study and 1 year after switching to long acting injecatable (LAI) aripiprazole.
In basal analytic, 48% had hyperprolactinemia (21.8–306.2 ng/mL) and 66.5% of them described side effects: 78% sexual dysfunction (72% men), 11% galactorrhoea (100% women), 5.5% amenorrhoea and 5.5% bone pain (100% women). In 48% of patients with hyperprolactinemia, the previous antipsychotics comprised: LAI-paliperidone (65,7%), oral-risperidone (7%), oral-olanzapine (6.1%), oral-paliperidone (5.2%), LAI-risperidone (4%) and others (12%). One year after switching to LAI-aripiprazole, prolactine levels were lower in all patients and in 85% prolactine levels were normalized. Overall, 72% described a clinical improvement, especially in terms of sexual dysfunction.
Several studies have described an improvement of drug-induced hyperprolactinemia after switching to or adding oral aripiprazole. In our study, we observed that levels of prolactine were normalized in 85% of patients with a clinical improvement in almost all of cases. These findings suggest that switching to LAI aripiprazole may be an effective alternative for managing antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia due to its partial agonism in D2 brain receptors, especially in tuberoinfundibular pathway.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
To investigate whether amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) identified with visual memory tests conveys an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (risk-AD) and if the risk-AD differs from that associated with aMCI based on verbal memory tests.
4,771 participants aged 70.76 (SD = 6.74, 45.4% females) from five community-based studies, each a member of the international COSMIC consortium and from a different country, were classified as having normal cognition (NC) or one of visual, verbal, or combined (visual and verbal) aMCI using international criteria and followed for an average of 2.48 years. Hazard ratios (HR) and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis analyzed the risk-AD with age, sex, education, single/multiple domain aMCI, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as covariates.
All aMCI groups (n = 760) had a greater risk-AD than NC (n = 4,011; HR range = 3.66 – 9.25). The risk-AD was not different between visual (n = 208, 17 converters) and verbal aMCI (n = 449, 29 converters, HR = 1.70, 95%CI: 0.88, 3.27, p = 0.111). Combined aMCI (n = 103, 12 converters, HR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.13, 4.84, p = 0.023) had a higher risk-AD than verbal aMCI. Age and MMSE scores were related to the risk-AD. The IPD meta-analyses replicated these results, though with slightly lower HR estimates (HR range = 3.68, 7.43) for aMCI vs. NC.
Although verbal aMCI was most common, a significant proportion of participants had visual-only or combined visual and verbal aMCI. Compared with verbal aMCI, the risk-AD was the same for visual aMCI and higher for combined aMCI. Our results highlight the importance of including both verbal and visual memory tests in neuropsychological assessments to more reliably identify aMCI.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG Si) solar cells with different ranges of efficiencies were characterized through electroluminescence imaging (ELi) and light-beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. The results showed a good correlation between the EL intensity and the efficiency of the solar cells. ELi images gave a bright contrast at the defects, grain boundaries and intragrain defects, and dark contrast inside the grain bodies. Metallic impurities are much more present in some cells due to the directional solidification of the Si ingot. Local short-circuit current mapping with LBIC measurements revealed a bright zone in the neighborhoods of the defects due to the depletion of impurities. Internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) and effective diffusion lengths (Leff) were calculated using different excitation wavelengths. High resolution LBIC measurements revealed micrometric clusters of impurities around intragrain defects.
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks. Livers were excised to measure the fat content and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTyr) immunostaining; serum samples were also obtained to measure the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Data were analyzed using a non-repeated measures three-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences (P<0.05) regarding to the interaction among maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Results showed that the liver fat content of females from R mothers was higher than that of their male counterpart. Hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations were not affected by the interaction involving maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Otherwise, liver fat content was correlated with the hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations only in females. Thus, sucrose intake in adulthood increases fat content in the female but not in the male rat offspring of dams fed with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. This research emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet during pregnancy and the influence of the diet on the adult offspring.
The overall incidence of spinal tuberculosis (TB) appears to be stable or declining in most European countries, but with an increasing proportion of cases in the foreign-born populations. We performed a retrospective observational study (1993–2014), including all cases of spinal TB diagnosed at a Barcelona hospital to assess the epidemiological changes. Fifty-four episodes (48·1% males, median age 52 years) of spinal TB were diagnosed. The percentage of foreign-born residents with spinal TB increased from 14% to 45·2% in the last 10 years (P = 0·017). Positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis testing in vertebral specimens was 88·2% (15/17) for GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Compared with natives, foreign-born patients were younger (P < 0·01) and required surgery more often (P = 0·003) because of higher percentages of paravertebral abscess (P = 0·038), cord compression (P = 0·05), and persistent neurological sequelae (P = 0·05). In our setting, one-third of spinal TB cases occurred in non-native residents. Compared with natives, foreign-born patients were younger and had greater severity of the disease. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test may be of value for diagnosing spinal TB.